Indoor dust samples were collected from 42 microenvironments of residential buildings (RB, 15 samples), official buildings (OB, 10 samples), laboratory rooms (LR, 7 samples), and school classroom (SCR, 10 samples) in Bushehr, whereby the concentration of zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, nickel, and chromium was studied. The results of this study indicated that the mean concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni in the indoor dust samples were 567.18, 186.09, 209.01, 5.31, 143.20, and 57.09 mg/kg in RB, 1077.34, 539.67, 274.89, 8.12, 155.30, and 92.55 mg/kg in OB, 246.40, 149.56, 127.2, 1.96, 43.45, and 91.09 mg/kg in LR and 271.43, 189.84, 164.44, 3.06, 124.20, and 70.09 mg/kg in SCR. The results of principal cluster analysis showed that the heavy metals in indoor environments were mostly originated from smoking tobacco and cigarette, traffic sources, old building materials, and building paint colors. The results of this study also revealed that the concentration of heavy metals in indoor dust had a negative and significant relationship (P value < 0.05 in most cases) with rate of ventilation, and a positive and significant relationship with smoking inside buildings (P value < 0.05 in most cases). The bioaccessibility for zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, nickel, and chromium was 69.12, 40.08, 43.33, 79.81, 31.10, and 6.31%, respectively, in indoor dust. Further, risk assessment showed that the risk values of carcinogenicity and non-carcinogenicity resulting from heavy metals inside the studied microenvironments had exceeded the recommended safe limit by EPA. In terms of potential ecological risks, it was found that heavy metals in these microenvironments have exceeded the hazardous ecological levels presented by different indices and can have considerable negative ecological effects. Thus, it is essential that further and better studies and monitoring be performed on these environments, and suitable control recommendations and solutions should be regulated for this public health threat.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Similar content being viewed by others
USEPA. (1989). Risk assessment guidance for superfund. Vol. I: Human health evaluation manual (Part A). EPA/540/1-89/002.
Al-Khashman, O. A. (2004). Heavy metal distribution in dust, street dust and soils from the work place in Karak Industrial Estate Jordan. Atmospheric Environment, 38(39), 6803–6812.
Arfaeinia, H., Dobaradaran, S., Moradi, M., Pasalari, H., Mehrizi, E. A., Taghizadeh, F., et al. (2019). The effect of land use configurations on concentration, spatial distribution, and ecological risk of heavy metals in coastal sediments of northern part along the Persian Gulf. Science of the Total Environment, 653, 783–791.
Barcan, V., & Kovnatsky, E. (1998). Soil surface geochemical anomaly around the copper-nickel metallurgical smelter. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 103(1–4), 197–218.
Bellinger, D. (1995). Neuropsychologic function in children exposed to environmental lead. Epidemiology. pp. 101–3.
Burbure, Cd, Buchet, J.-P., Bernard, A., Leroyer, A., Nisse, C., Haguenoer, J.-M., et al. (2003). Biomarkers of renal effects in children and adults with low environmental exposure to heavy metals. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A, 66(9), 783–798.
Chandra Mouli, P., Venkata Mohan, S., Balaram, V., Praveen Kumar, M., & Jayarama, R. S. (2006). A study on trace elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols at a semi-arid urban site using ICP-MS technique. Atmospheric Environment, 40(1), 136–146.
Chen, X., & Lu, X. (2018). Contamination characteristics and source apportionment of heavy metals in topsoil from an area in Xi’an city, China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 151, 153–160.
Cheng, Z., Chen, L.-J., Li, H.-H., Lin, J.-Q., Yang, Z.-B., Yang, Y.-X., et al. (2018). Characteristics and health risk assessment of heavy metals exposure via household dust from urban area in Chengdu. China. Science of The Total Environment, 619, 621–629.
Fazlzadeh DM, Rostami R, Zarei A, Feizizadeh M, Mahdavi M, Mohammadi A, et al. (2012). A survey of 24 hour variations of BTEX concentration in the ambient air of Tehran.
Ferreira-Baptista, L., & De Miguel, E. (2005). Geochemistry and risk assessment of street dust in Luanda, Angola: A tropical urban environment. Atmospheric Environment, 39(25), 4501–4512.
Górka-Kostrubiec, B. (2015). The magnetic properties of indoor dust fractions as markers of air pollution inside buildings. Building and Environment, 90, 186–195.
Habibollahi, M. H., Karimyan, K., Arfaeinia, H., Mirzaei, N., Safari, Y., Akramipour, R., et al. (2019). Extraction and determination of heavy metals in soil and vegetables irrigated with treated municipal wastewater using new mode of dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on the solidified deep eutectic solvent followed by GFAAS. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 99(2), 656–665.
Haghnazari, L., Mirzaei, N., Arfaeinia, H., Karimyan, K., Sharafi, H., & Fattahi, N. (2018). Speciation of As()/As(V) and Total Inorganic Arsenic in Biological Fluids Using New Mode of Liquid-Phase Microextraction and Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Biological Trace Element Research, 183(1), 173–181.
Hakanson, L. (1980). An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water research, 14(8), 975–1001.
Han, Y., Cao, J., & Posmentier, E. S. (2006). Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi'an, Central China. Science of the Total Environment, 355(1–3), 176–186.
Huang, H., Jiang, Y., Xu, X., & Cao, X. (2018). In vitro bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of heavy metals in atmospheric particulate matters from three different functional areas of Shanghai China. Science of The Total Environment, 610–611, 546–554.
Hunt, A., Johnson, D. L., & Griffith, D. A. (2006). Mass transfer of soil indoors by track-in on footwear. Science of the Total Environment, 370(2–3), 360–371.
Jafari, A. J., Kermani, M., Kalantary, R. R., & Arfaeinia, H. (2018). The effect of traffic on levels, distribution and chemical partitioning of harmful metals in the street dust and surface soil from urban areas of Tehran, Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences, 77(2), 38.
Jaradat, Q. M., Momani, K. A., Jbarah, A.-A. Q., & Massadeh, A. (2004). Inorganic analysis of dust fall and office dust in an industrial area of Jordan. Environmental Research, 96(2), 139–144.
Kang, Y., Cheung, K. C., & Wong, M. H. (2011). Mutagenicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenic risk assessment of indoor dust from three major cities around the Pearl River Delta. Environment International, 37(3), 637–643.
Kang, Y., Man, Y. B., Cheung, K. C., & Wong, M. H. (2012). Risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible phthalate esters via indoor dust around the Pearl River Delta. Environmental Science and Technology, 46(15), 8422–8430.
Karbasdehi, V. N., Dobaradaran, S., Nabipour, I., Arfaeinia, H., Mirahmadi, R., & Keshtkar, M. (2016). Data on metal contents (As, Ag, Sr, Sn, Sb, and Mo) in sediments and shells of Trachycardium lacunosum in the northern part of the Persian Gulf. Data in Brief, 8, 966–971.
Kurt-Karakus, P. B. (2012). Determination of heavy metals in indoor dust from Istanbul, Turkey: Estimation of the health risk. Environment International, 50, 47–55.
Kylander, M. E., Rauch, S., Morrison, G. M., & Andam, K. (2003). Impact of automobile emissions on the levels of platinum and lead in Accra Ghana. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 5(1), 91–95.
Layton, D. W., & Beamer, P. I. (2009). Migration of contaminated soil and airborne particulates to indoor dust. Environmental Science and Technology., 43(21), 8199–8205.
Li, B., Feng, C., Li, X., Chen, Y., Niu, J., & Shen, Z. (2012). Spatial distribution and source apportionment of PAHs in surficial sediments of the Yangtze Estuary, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 64(3), 636–643.
Li, X., Poon, C-s, & Liu, P. S. (2001). Heavy metal contamination of urban soils and street dusts in Hong Kong. Applied Geochemistry, 16(11–12), 1361–1368.
Lin, Y.-P., Cheng, B.-Y., Chu, H.-J., Chang, T.-K., & Yu, H.-L. (2011). Assessing how heavy metal pollution and human activity are related by using logistic regression and kriging methods. Geoderma, 163(3–4), 275–282.
Martínez, L. L. G., & Poleto, C. (2014). Assessment of diffuse pollution associated with metals in urban sediments using the geoaccumulation index (I geo). Journal of Soils and Sediments, 14(7), 1251–1257.
Morawska, L. (2004). Indoor particles, combustion products and fibres. Air Pollution (pp. 117–147). Berlin: Springer.
Moreda-Piñeiro, J., Moreda-Piñeiro, A., Romarís-Hortas, V., Moscoso-Pérez, C., López-Mahía, P., Muniategui-Lorenzo, S., et al. (2011). In-vivo and in-vitro testing to assess the bioaccessibility and the bioavailability of arsenic, selenium and mercury species in food samples. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 30(2), 324–345.
Morman, S. A., Plumlee, G. S., & Smith, D. B. (2009). Application of in vitro extraction studies to evaluate element bioaccessibility in soils from a transect across the United States and Canada. Applied Geochemistry, 24(8), 1454–1463.
Naddafi, K., Nabizadeh, R., Rostami, R., Ghaffari, H. R., & Fazlzadeh, M. (2019a). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the indoor air of waterpipe cafés: Measuring exposures and assessing health effects. Building and Environment, 165, 106392.
Naddafi, K., Nabizadeh, R., Rostamy, R., Kalan, M. E., Hassanvand, M. S., & Fazlzadeh, M. (2019b). Indoor air quality in waterpipe cafés: exposure level to particulate matter. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(26), 26605–26616.
Okorie, A., Entwistle, J., & Dean, J. R. (2012). Estimation of daily intake of potentially toxic elements from urban street dust and the role of oral bioaccessibility testing. Chemosphere, 86(5), 460–467.
Olujimi, O., Steiner, O., & Goessler, W. (2015). Pollution indexing and health risk assessments of trace elements in indoor dusts from classrooms, living rooms and offices in Ogun State, Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 101, 396–404.
Pourkhabbaz, A., & Pourkhabbaz, H. (2012). Investigation of toxic metals in the tobacco of different Iranian cigarette brands and related health issues. Iranian journal of basic medical sciences, 15(1), 636.
Rashed, M. N. (2008). Total and extractable heavy metals in indoor, outdoor and street dust from Aswan City, Egypt. CLEAN—Soil, Air, Water, 36(10–11), 850–857.
Rasmussen, P. E., Levesque, C., Chénier, M., Gardner, H. D., Jones-Otazo, H., & Petrovic, S. (2013). Canadian House Dust Study: Population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes. Science of The Total Environment, 443, 520–529.
EPA U. Regional Screening Level (RSL) (2014) Summary Table (TR= 1E-6, HQ= 1). United States Environmental Protection Agency Washington (DC), 2014.
Roberts, J. W., Wallace, L. A., Camann, D. E., Dickey, P., Gilbert, S. G., & Lewis, R. G. et al. (2009). Monitoring and reducing exposure of infants to pollutants in house dust. In Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology (Vol. 201, pp. 1–39). Berlin: Springer.
Romero-Romero, S., Herrero, L., Fernández, M., Gómara, B., & Acuña, J. L. (2017). Biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in a deep-sea, temperate food web. Science of the Total Environment, 605–606, 589–597.
Rostami, R., Zarei, A., Saranjam, B., Ghaffari, H. R., Hazrati, S., Poureshg, Y., et al. (2019). Exposure and risk assessment of PAHs in indoor air of waterpipe cafés in Ardebil Iran. Building and Environment, 155, 47–57.
Saeedi, M., Li, L. Y., & Salmanzadeh, M. (2012). Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Pollution and ecological risk assessment in street dust of Tehran. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 227, 9–17.
Safari, Y., Karimaei, M., Sharafi, K., Arfaeinia, H., Moradi, M., & Fattahi, N. (2018). Persistent sample circulation microextraction combined with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy for trace determination of heavy metals in fish species marketed in Kermanshah, Iran, and human health risk assessment. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(8), 2915–2924.
Sun, G., Li, Z., Bi, X., Chen, Y., Lu, S., & Yuan, X. (2013). Distribution, sources and health risk assessment of mercury in kindergarten dust. Atmospheric Environment, 73, 169–176.
Sun, J., Xu, Y., Zhou, H., Zhang, A., & Qi, H. (2018). Levels, occurrence and human exposure to novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) in dust from different indoor environments in Hangzhou China. Science of The Total Environment, 631, 1212–1220.
Trujillo-González, J. M., Torres-Mora, M. A., Keesstra, S., Brevik, E. C., & Jiménez-Ballesta, R. (2016). Heavy metal accumulation related to population density in road dust samples taken from urban sites under different land uses. Science of the Total Environment, 553, 636–642.
Wang, J., Li, S., Cui, X., Li, H., Qian, X., Wang, C., et al. (2016). Bioaccessibility, sources and health risk assessment of trace metals in urban park dust in Nanjing, Southeast China. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 128, 161–170.
Yongming, H., Peixuan, D., Junji, C., & Posmentier, E. S. (2006). Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi'an, Central China. Science of The Total Environment, 355(1), 176–186.
Yuen, J. Q., Olin, P. H., Lim, H. S., Benner, S. G., Sutherland, R. A., & Ziegler, A. D. (2012). Accumulation of potentially toxic elements in road deposited sediments in residential and light industrial neighborhoods of Singapore. Journal of Environmental Management, 101, 151–163.
Zheng, N., Liu, J., Wang, Q., & Liang, Z. (2010). Heavy metals exposure of children from stairway and sidewalk dust in the smelting district, northeast of China. Atmospheric Environment, 44(27), 3239–3245.
This research work was financial supported by Bushehr University of Medical Sciences (Grant No. 2636), and we gratefully acknowledge them.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Hashemi, S.E., Fazlzadeh, M., Ahmadi, E. et al. Occurrence, potential sources, in vitro bioaccessibility and health risk assessment of heavy metal in indoor dust from different microenvironment of Bushehr, Iran. Environ Geochem Health 42, 3641–3658 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-020-00598-z