Advertisement

Potential of asphalt concrete as a source of trace metals

  • Konstantin von GuntenEmail author
  • Kurt O. Konhauser
  • Daniel S. Alessi
Short Communication

Abstract

Asphalt concrete is one of the most important building materials in the modern world, but the leaching potential of metals from this composite material to the environment is poorly understood. In this study, metals leaching from four hot-mix asphalt samples were analyzed: two fresh samples of low-traffic and high-traffic composition and their weathered equivalents collected from roads in the city of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. A sequential extraction, based on the Community Bureau of Reference method, was applied to study the speciation and potential mobility of metals and metalloids in those samples. Major trace metals identified in all four samples were Mn, P, Ba, Sr, Zn, V, and Ni, with the highest metals concentrations generally found in weathered asphalt concrete. Of the major trace metals, P, Mn, Sr, and Zn were relatively mobile, having large portions of their total concentrations in the exchangeable/acid-soluble and reducible fractions. When considering the most mobile fraction (exchangeable/acid soluble) and using Canada as a model country, up to 180 t P, 440 t Mn, 50 t Ba, 36 t Sr, 11 t Zn, and 0.11–3.2 t of other metals and metalloids (including Cr, Ni, Cu, As, and Pb) could potentially leach from the top layer of Canada’s total of paved public roads. To place these amounts into perspective, they were estimated to make up to 22‰ of Canada’s annual release numbers into soil, water and air for these same metals and metalloids. However, they are concentrated in a small area around roads and highways, creating the potential for localized soil and groundwater contamination.

Keywords

Asphalt Road construction Urban environment Inorganic pollutants Soil contamination 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Discovery grant (RGPIN-04134) to D.S.A. The authors thank the anonymous pavement company for providing the fresh asphalt concrete samples and the Edmonton city administration for the provided historical records on the sampled pavements. The authors also appreciate the valuable comments provided by two anonymous reviewers that served to improve this work.

Supplementary material

10653_2019_370_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.4 mb)
Supplementary file1 (DOCX 2438 kb)

References

  1. Abraham, H. (1960). Asphalt and allied substances, 6th edn. Princeton, NY: Van Nostrand.Google Scholar
  2. Akpoveta, O. V., & Osakwe, S. A. (2014). Determination of heavy metal contents in refined petroleum products. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, 7(6), 1–2.Google Scholar
  3. Asphalt Institute and Eurobitume. (2011). The bitumen industry—a global perspective: Production, chemistry, use, specification, and occupational exposure, 2nd edn IS-230. Lexington, KY: Asphalt Institute.Google Scholar
  4. Birgisdottir, H., Gamst, J., & Christensen, T. H. (2007). Leaching of PAHs from hot mix asphalt pavements. Environmental Engineering Science, 24(10), 1409–1422.Google Scholar
  5. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. (2018). Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. https://www.ccme.ca/en/resources/canadian_environmental_quality_guidelines/. Accessed November 2018.
  6. City of Edmonton Transportation Services. (2015). Design standards construction specifications - volume 2 roadways. https://www.edmonton.ca/city_government/documents/Volume_2_-_Roadways.pdf. Accessed November 2018.
  7. Environment and Climate Change Canada. (2017). National pollutant release inventory summary report 2016. Catalogue No.: En81-14E-PDF. https://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2017/eccc/En81-14-2016-eng.pdf. Accessed November 2018.
  8. Essoka, P. A., Ubogu, A. E., & Uzu, L. (2006). An overview of oil pollution and heavy metal concentration in Warri area, Nigeria. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, 17(2), 209–215.Google Scholar
  9. Ho, H. H., Swennen, R., Cappuyns, V., Vassilieva, E., & Van Tran, T. (2012). Necessity of normalization to aluminum to assess the contamination by heavy metals and arsenic in sediments near Haiphong Harbor. Vietnam. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 56, 229–239.Google Scholar
  10. Jack, T. R., Sullivan, E. A., & Zajic, J. E. (1979). Leaching of vanadium and other metals from Athabasca Oil Sands coke and coke ash. Fuel, 58(8), 589–594.Google Scholar
  11. Jukić, M., Ćurković, L., Šabarić, J., & Kerolli-Mustafa, M. (2017). Fractionation of heavy metals in fly ash from wood biomass using the BCR sequential extraction procedure. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 99(4), 524–529.Google Scholar
  12. Kalra, Y. P. (1995). Determination of pH of soils by different methods: Collaborative study. Journal of AOAC International, 78(2), 310–324.Google Scholar
  13. Landsberger, S., Cerbus, J., & Larson, S. (1995). Elemental characterization of coal ash and its leachates using sequential extraction techniques. Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 192(2), 265–274.Google Scholar
  14. Legret, M., & Pagotto, C. (2006). Heavy metal deposition and soil pollution along two major rural highways. Environmental Technology, 27(3), 247–254.Google Scholar
  15. Legret, M., Odie, L., Demare, D., & Jullien, A. (2005). Leaching of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from reclaimed asphalt pavement. Water Research, 39(15), 3675–3685.Google Scholar
  16. Lopez, A., Lazaro, N., Priego, J. M., & Marques, A. M. (2000). Effect of pH on the biosorption of nickel and other heavy metals by Pseudomonas fluorescens 4F39. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 24(2), 146–151.Google Scholar
  17. Marwil, S.J., Engle, C.J., & ConocoPhillips Co. (1960). Treatment of well drilling mud. U.S. Patent 2,919,898.Google Scholar
  18. Merdhah, A. B. B., & Yassin, A. A. M. (2007). Barium sulfate scale formation in oil reservoir during water injection at high-barium formation water. Journal of Applied Sciences, 7(17), 2393–2403.Google Scholar
  19. National Asphalt Pavement Association. (2018). History of asphalt. https://www.asphaltpavement.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=21&Itemid=268. Accessed November 2018.
  20. Pagotto, C., Remy, N., Legret, M., & Le Cloirec, P. (2001). Heavy metal pollution of road dust and roadside soil near a major rural highway. Environmental Technology, 22(3), 307–319.Google Scholar
  21. Peters, W. E., & Alphaflex Industries Inc. (1995). Asphalt composition. U.S. Patent 5,399,598.Google Scholar
  22. Rauret, G., Lopez-Sanchez, J. F., Sahuquillo, A., Rubio, R., Davidson, C., Ure, A., et al. (1999). Improvement of the BCR three step sequential extraction procedure prior to the certification of new sediment and soil reference materials. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 1(1), 57–61.Google Scholar
  23. Sadler, R., Delamont, C., White, P., & Connell, D. (1999). Contaminants in soil as a result of leaching from asphalt. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 68(1–2), 71–81.Google Scholar
  24. Sakai, K. (2015). Routine soil analysis using an Agilent 8800 ICP-QQQ. Application note 5991-6409EN. Agilent Technologies. https://www.agilent.com/cs/library/applications/5991-6409EN_AppNote_ICP-QQQ-8800_soils.pdf. Accessed March 2019.
  25. Sirin, O., Paul, D.K., & Kassem, E. (2018). State of the art study on aging of asphalt mixtures and use of antioxidant additives. Advances in Civil Engineering, 2018.Google Scholar
  26. Statistics Canada. (2018). Canada’s core public infrastructure survey: roads, bridges and tunnels, 2016. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/daily-quotidien/180824/dq180824a-eng.pdf?st=NjuijiRK. Accessed November 2018.
  27. Tessier, A., Campbell, P. G., & Bisson, M. (1979). Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Analytical Chemistry, 51(7), 844–851.Google Scholar
  28. Transport Canada. (2018). Transportation in Canada 2017. Overview report. Catalogue No. T1-21E-PDF. https://www.tc.gc.ca/media/documents/policy/Transportation_in_Canada_2017nwe.pdf. Accessed November 2018.
  29. von Gunten, K., Alam, M. S., Hubmann, M., Ok, Y. S., Konhauser, K. O., & Alessi, D. S. (2017). Modified sequential extraction for biochar and petroleum coke: Metal release potential and its environmental implications. Bioresource Technology, 236, 106–110.Google Scholar
  30. Wilson, M. A., Burt, R., & Lee, C. W. (2006). Improved elemental recoveries in soils with heating boric acid following microwave total digestion. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 37(3–4), 513–524.Google Scholar
  31. Yang, K., Miao, G., Wu, W., Lin, D., Pan, B., Wu, F., et al. (2015). Sorption of Cu 2+ on humic acids sequentially extracted from a sediment. Chemosphere, 138, 657–663.Google Scholar
  32. Yuan, X., Huang, H., Zeng, G., Li, H., Wang, J., Zhou, C., et al. (2011). Total concentrations and chemical speciation of heavy metals in liquefaction residues of sewage sludge. Bioresource Technology, 102(5), 4104–4110.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konstantin von Gunten
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kurt O. Konhauser
    • 1
  • Daniel S. Alessi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations