Investigation of geospatial distribution of PAH compounds in soil phase and determination of soil–air exchange direction in a megacity

  • Aigerim Yukhimets
  • S. Levent KuzuEmail author
  • Ezgi Akyüz
  • Arslan Saral
Original Paper


In this study, determination of possible sources, soil–air exchange direction, and spatial distribution of PAH concentrations was aimed. In this scope, soil samples were collected from 35 different points, which have the urban and rural characteristics, from European and Asian Sides in Istanbul. The average ∑16PAH concentrations were found as 22.11 ng/g dw for urban site and 19.53 ng/g dw for rural site, respectively. The highest concentration was 279.5 ng/g dw. PAH concentrations were higher in urban site than rural site. Acenaphthene and benzo[k]fluoranthene were observed as the dominant species. PAH concentrations are observed higher mostly in north and west parts of European Side and south and east parts of Asian Side. There was net evaporation from soil to air for lower molecular weight PAHs with 2, 3 rings, while high molecular weight PAHs with 4, 5, 6 rings accumulated in the soil at both urban and rural sites. PAHs were mostly originated from coal burning and the use of diesel engine vehicles.


PAHs Environmental fate Soil–air exchange Fugacity Spatial distribution 



This research was funded by the research fund of TUBITAK (Project Number: 111Y225). The authors greatly acknowledge Gülsüm Summak and Hatice Çoltu for their efforts during laboratory step of the study.

Supplementary material

10653_2019_369_MOESM1_ESM.doc (728 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 727 kb)


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental Engineering Department, Civil Engineering FacultyYildiz Technical UniversityDavutpaşa-Esenler, IstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Eurasia Institute of Earth SciencesIstanbul Technical UniversityIstanbulTurkey

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