Urban geochemistry and potential human health risks in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires: PAHs and PCBs in soil, street dust, and bulk deposition
- 238 Downloads
Soil, street dust, and bulk deposition (dry and wet deposition) were collected in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA), Argentina, to assess the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution and the potential risks to human health. Compared with other countries, the mean concentration of PAHs and PCBs in surface soils, street dust and bulk deposition of MABA were at a low or moderate level. Average PAHs and PCBs concentrations in bulk deposition (5.7 ± 5.1 and 0.41 ± 0.25 µg g−1, respectively) were five and ten times higher than those of soil (1.08 ± 0.98 and 0.02 ± 0.01 µg g−1) and street dust (1.2 ± 0.95 and 0.04 ± 0.03 µg g−1), respectively. Different compositional profiles, observed in the three matrices for both groups of contaminants, could be attributed to dissimilar source contribution, partition processes between gas and particulate phases, and transformation. The most contaminated bulk deposition presented higher values for cancer and non-cancer risks relative to soil and street dust. In all matrices, non-carcinogenic risks were below the safety threshold (HI < 1). Regarding carcinogenic risks, exposure to both bulk deposition and soil indicated a moderated potential for cancerous development (Incremental lifetime cancer risk ~ 3.0 × 10−6).
KeywordsPAHs PCBs Soil Street dust Bulk deposition Human health risk
This study is a part of the Project UNDAVCYT2013 funded by National University of Avellaneda, Argentina. The authors wish to thank Dr. Lucas Garbin for the English revisions.
- ATSDR. (2000). Toxicological profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) U.S. Atlanta, Georgia: Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.Google Scholar
- Cavalcante, R., Sousa, F., Nascimento, R., Silveira, E., & Viana, R. (2012). Influence of urban activities on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in precipitation: Distribution, sources and depositional flux in a developing metropolis, Fortaleza, Brazil. Science of the Total Environment, 414, 287–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment). (2007). Canadian soil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health. Update 7.Google Scholar
- Gee, G. W., & Bauder, J. W. (1986). Particle-size analysis. In A. Klute (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis: part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods. 9. Soil Science Society of America (Vol. 2, pp. 383–411). Madison: Agronomy.Google Scholar
- Health Canada. (2007) (draft). Federal contaminated site risk assessment in Canada. Part I: Guidance on Human Health Preliminary Quantitative Risk Assessment, Version 2.0.Google Scholar
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). (2010). Some Non-heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some related exposures. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 92. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.Google Scholar
- Klees, M., Hiester, E., Bruckmann, P., Molt, K., & Schmidt, T. (2015). Science of the total environment polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in street dust of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Science of the Total Environment, 511, 72–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Law 24.051, Decree: 831/93. Hazardous waste. Annex II Table 9. Buenos Aires. Argentina. 23/4/93.Google Scholar
- OEHHA (California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment). (2017). Toxicity criteria database. https://oehha.ca.gov/chemicals.
- Roberts, J., Wallace, L., Camann, D., Dickey, P., Gilbert, S., Lewis, R., et al. (2009). Monitoring and reducing exposure of infants to pollutants in house dust. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 201, 1–38.Google Scholar
- Soltani, N., Keshavarzi, B., Moore, F., Tavakol, T., Reza, A., Jaafarzadeh, N., et al. (2015). Ecological and human health hazards of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in road dust of Isfahan metropolis, Iran. Science of the Total Environment, 505, 712–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (1991a). Risk assessment guidance fo superfund. Volume I: Human health evaluation manual. Supplemental guidance, Standard default exposure factors. Interim final. OSWER directive: 9285.6-03. Office of Emergency and Remedial Response Toxics Integration Branch.Google Scholar
- USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (1991b). Risk assessment guidance fo superfund Volume I: Human health evaluation manual (part B, development of risk-based preliminary remediation goals) Interim. EPA/540/R-92/003. Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.Google Scholar
- USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (1993). Provisional guidance for quantitative risk assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons EPA/600/R-93/089. Environmental criteria and assessment office.Google Scholar
- USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (1996). Soil screening guidance: user’s guide. Second edition. Publication 9355.4-23. Office of Emergency and remedial Response.Google Scholar
- USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2002). Calculating upper confidence limits for exposure point concentrations at hazardous waste sites. OSWER 9285.6-10. Office of Research and Development.Google Scholar
- USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2004). Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I: Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part E, Supplemental Guidance for Dermal Risk Assessment) Final. OSWER 9285.7-02EP. Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation.Google Scholar
- USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2011). Exposure factors handbook: 2011 edition. EPA/600/R-09/052F. National Center for Environmental Assessment. Office of Research and Development.Google Scholar
- USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). (2017). Integrated risk information system. www.epa.gov/iris.