Source identification, environmental risk assessment and human health risks associated with toxic elements present in a coastal industrial environment, India
- 61 Downloads
This study investigated the source and contamination levels of toxic elements (Cd, Cr, As, Pb, Ni and Hg) present in a coastal environment, Paradip—an industrial hub of the east coast of India. The ecological risk assessment indices and human exposure models were used to evaluate the pollution status. Enrichment factor indicated that all the metal(loid)s found in the sediment are mostly derived from the anthropogenic source. According to the sediment quality quotient, 8.33% of sediments have crossed the ERM limit for Ni that can be fatal to biota. Meanwhile, 66.66, 41.66 and 8.33% of sediments have exceeded PEL range for Cr, Ni and As, respectively, that can register frequent lethal toxicity to benthic biota. As had the highest potential ecological harm coefficient (Er f > 80), and Hg had moderate ecological harm coefficient (40 < Er f < 80). Summarily, the sediment quality of this site is moderate to heavily toxic to benthic organisms. The concentration of toxic metals in seawater was below the permissible limit (CCC and CMC) set by USEPA indicating that water is relatively safer for free floating aquatic biota. The health risk index of toxic metal (loid)s present in soils of the residential sites has confirmed that there is a severe non-carcinogenic threat for children (HI child > 1) and a borderline carcinogenic risk for both adult and children. THQCr possesses highest non-carcinogenic threat, which contributed approximately 50% to HI followed by THQAs. The contribution of carcinogenic risk of chromium (CRCr) to TCR is approximately 60%. Cr is the significant contaminant of this site that has highest health effects. Highest exposure risks were associated with ingestion pathway accounting for about 85% of the total for most of the elements.
KeywordsToxic metal ions Pollution index Ecological risk assessment Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic threat Sediment quality guidelines Hazard quotient
This work was supported by the Ministry of Earth Science (MoES), Govt of India, under the Project No. GAP-004. Thanks to the COMAPS team members for their cooperation in data preparation and sampling. Further gratitude is extended to two anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions in modification of the manuscript.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (2009). Toxicological profiles. Atlanta: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (US). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK153665/.
- Barik, R. N., Pradhan, B., & Patel, R. K. (2005). Trace elements in groundwater of paradip area. Journal of Industrial Pollution Control, 21(2), 389–396.Google Scholar
- Brown, E., Skougstad, N. W., & Fishman, M. J. (1974). Methods for collection and analysis of water samples for dissolved minerals and gases. U.S. Department Interior Book-S.P.160.Google Scholar
- CCME. (1992). Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Canadian Water Quality Guidelines, prepared by the Task Force on Water Quality Guidelines of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. Ottawa: Eco-Health Branch.Google Scholar
- CCME. (1999). Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Canadian sediment quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life: Summary tables. Winnipeg: Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment.Google Scholar
- Clark, R. B. (2002). Marine pollution (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Environmental Site Assessment Guideline. (2009). DB11/T 656-2009 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
- Gladney, E. S. (1980). Compilation of elemental concentration data for the United States Geological Survey’s six geochemical exploration reference materials (pp. 1–19).Google Scholar
- Guang, X., Jian, X., Zhang, Y., Zhao, C., & Wu, Q. (2010). Application of Nemerow Pollution Index in landscape river water quality assessment of Tianjin. In 4th international conference on bioinformatics and biomedical engineering (iCBBE) (pp. 1–4).Google Scholar
- Hakanson, L. (1980). Ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control, a sedimentological approach. Water Research, 14(975–1001), 7h.Google Scholar
- Han, J. X., Ma, J. H., & Wei, L. F. (2006). Effect of sewage irrigation on content and distribution of heavy metals in alluvial meadow soil—a case study of the Huafei river sewage irrigation region in Kaifeng city soil. The Soil, 38, 292–297.Google Scholar
- Libes, S. M. (2009). An introduction to marine biogeochemistry (pp. 515–524). Amsterdam: Amsterdam Press.Google Scholar
- Nemerow, N. L. (1991). Stream, lake, estuary, and ocean pollution. New York: Reinhold Publishing Co.Google Scholar
- USEPA. (1989). Risk assessment guidance for superfund, vol 1. Human health evaluation. Washington: Office of Emergency and Remedial Response.Google Scholar
- USEPA. (1996). Soil screening guidance: Technical background document. Washington: Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.Google Scholar
- USEPA. (2011a). Screening level (RSL) for chemical contaminants at superfoundsites. Washington: Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
- USEPA. (2011b). USEPA regional screening level (RSL) summary table: November 2011. http://www.epa.gov/regshwmd/risk/human/index.htm. Last update 6th.
- USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency). (2009). National recommended water quality criteria. Washington: Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
- Violitzis, C., Arditsoglou, A., & Voutsa, D. (2009). Elemental composition of suspended particulate matter and sediments in the coastal environment of Thermaikos Bay, Greece: Delineating the impact of inland water and waste water. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 166, 1250–1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yi, Y., Yang, Z., & Zhang, S. (2011). Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. Environmental Pollution, 159(10), 2575–2585. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.06.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar