Stabilization of Cd-, Pb-, Cu- and Zn-contaminated calcareous agricultural soil using red mud: a field experiment
Red mud (RM) was used to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils. Experiments with two different dosages of RM added to soils were carried out in this study. It was found that soil pH increased 0.3 and 0.5 unit with the dosage of 3 and 5% (wt%), respectively. At the dosage of 5%, the highest stabilization efficiencies for Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn reached 67.95, 64.21, 43.73 and 63.73%, respectively. The addition of RM obviously transferred Cd from the exchangeable fraction to the residual fraction. Meanwhile, in comparison with the control (no RM added), it reduced 24.38, 49.20, 19.42 and 8.89% of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in wheat grains at the RM addition dosage of 5%, respectively. At the same time, the yield of wheat grains increased 17.81 and 24.66% at the RM addition dosage of 3 and 5%, respectively. Finally, the addition of RM did not change the soil bacterial community. These results indicate that RM has a great potential in stabilizing heavy metals in calcareous agricultural soils.
KeywordsHeavy metal contamination Stabilization Calcareous agricultural soil Red mud Wheat
This work was supported by a Grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41430637 and 51704093); Program for Innovative Research Team (in Science and Technology) in University of Henan Province (16IRTSTHN012); and Opening Foundation of the Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Control and Treatment of Heavy metal Pollution, Changsha, 410083, China (No. 2015CNERC-CTHMP-).
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