Many studies have conducted to determine the best management practice to reduce the mobility and phytoavailability of the trace metals in contaminated soils. In this study, geochemical speciation and phytoavailability of Zn for sunflower were studied after application of nanoparticles (SiO2 and zeolite, with an application rate of 200 mg kg−1) and bacteria [Bacillus safensis FO-036b(T) and Pseudomonas fluorescens p.f.169] to a calcareous heavily contaminated soil. Results showed that the biotic and abiotic treatments significantly reduced the Zn concentration in the aboveground to non-toxicity levels compared to the control treatment, and the nanoparticle treatments were more effective than the bacteria and control treatments. The concentration of CaCl2-extractable Zn in the treated soils was significantly lower than those of the control treatment. The results of sequential extraction showed that the maximum portion of total Zn belonged to the fraction associated with iron and manganese oxides. On the contrary, the minimum percent belonged to the exchangeable and water-soluble Zn (F1). From the environmental point of view, the fraction associated with iron and manganese oxides is less bioavailable than the F1 and carbonated fractions. On the basis of plant growth promotion, simultaneous application of the biotic and abiotic treatments significantly increased the aboveground dry biomass yield and also significantly reduced the CaCl2-extractable form, uptake by aboveground and translocation factor of Zn compared to the control treatment. Therefore, it might be suggested as an efficient strategy to promote the plant growth and reduce the mobile and available forms of toxic metals in calcareous heavily contaminated soils.
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This work was supported by the Iran National Science Foundation (Grant Number 96000777); and the study held under the auspices of the respected council; in this regard, the authors are truly grateful.
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Mousavi, S.M., Motesharezadeh, B., Hosseini, H.M. et al. Geochemical fractions and phytoavailability of Zinc in a contaminated calcareous soil affected by biotic and abiotic amendments. Environ Geochem Health 40, 1221–1235 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-017-0038-z
- Soil conditioners
- Geochemical fractions