Environmental Geochemistry and Health

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 705–714

Stabilization of lead and copper contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and fly ash

  • Deok Hyun Moon
  • Jae-Woo Park
  • Kyung Hoon Cheong
  • Seunghun Hyun
  • Agamemnon Koutsospyros
  • Jeong-Hun Park
  • Yong Sik Ok
Original paper


A stabilization/solidification treatment scheme was devised to stabilize Pb and Cu contaminated soil from a firing range using renewable waste resources as additives, namely waste oyster shells (WOS) and fly ash (FA). The WOS, serving as the primary stabilizing agent, was pre-treated at a high temperature to activate quicklime from calcite. Class C FA was used as a secondary additive along with the calcined oyster shells (COS). The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the 0.1 M HCl extraction tests following a curing period of 28 days. The combined treatment with 10 wt% COS and 5 wt% FA cause a significant reduction in Pb (>98 %) and Cu (>96 %) leachability which was indicated by the results from both extraction tests (TCLP and 0.1 M HCl). Scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDX) analyses are used to investigate the mechanism responsible for Pb and Cu stabilization. SEM–EDX results indicate that effective Pb and Cu immobilization using the combined COS–FA treatment is most probably associated with ettringite and pozzolanic reaction products. The treatment results suggest that the combined COS–FA treatment is a cost effective method for the stabilization of firing range soil.


Lead Copper Stabilization Oyster shell Fly ash 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deok Hyun Moon
    • 1
  • Jae-Woo Park
    • 2
  • Kyung Hoon Cheong
    • 1
  • Seunghun Hyun
    • 3
  • Agamemnon Koutsospyros
    • 4
  • Jeong-Hun Park
    • 5
  • Yong Sik Ok
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringChosun UniversityGwangjuKorea
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringHanyang UniversitySeoulKorea
  3. 3.Division of Environmental Science and Ecological EngineeringKorea UniversitySeoulKorea
  4. 4.Mechanical, Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of New HavenWest HavenUSA
  5. 5.Department of Environmental EngineeringChonnam National UniversityGwangjuKorea
  6. 6.Department of Biological EnvironmentKangwon National UniversityChuncheonKorea

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