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Mineralogy and chemistry of urinary stones: patients from North Jordan

Abstract

Urinary stone diseases are increasing in the Middle East. The majority of urinary stone cases are found in the northern part of the country. Stone samples taken from patients living in the Irbid area were collected from Princess Basma Hospital. The present study concentrates on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the urinary stones and on the effective environmental factors that assist in developing the different types of urinary stones. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, the mineralogical composition of the urinary stones was found to be as follows: oxalate, cholesten, and uric acid, with cystine stones occuring more frequently than the others. Cholesten and calcium oxalate stones are the most dominant types of stones. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of oxalate stone. Calcium oxalate is represented in: whewellite, wheddellite, and calcium carbonate oxalate hydrate minerals, in addition to other minerals such as brushite, ammonium phosphate, vaterite, valleriite, and bobierrite from other types of stones. Bobierrite (phosphate group) is a new mineral reported in urinary stones, and this has not been determined in any previous study worldwide. Apatite (calcium phosphate) is deduced using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The SEM technique determined crystal forms and systems, shapes, morphological features, and the names of the minerals forming urine stones, while optical properties are studied by polarizing microscope. X-ray fluorescence technique determined the concentrations of major and some trace elements. It revealed that Ca is the main constituent of the urinary stones, especially those composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The concentration of trace elements was Ba = 1.57, P = 3.61, Fe = 1.78, S = 2.08, Zr = 4.63, Mo = 3.92, Cu = 1.89, Co = 1.56, and F = 4.2% and was higher in the urinary stones of Jordanian patients than in foreigners in the country. Questionnaires completed by patients suggest that the most significant factors directly effecting the formation of stones are water, climate conditions, food rich in protein and rich in different chemicals. Moreover, some drugs and diseases might also help in developing other stones.

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Acknowledgments

This research was sponsored by a grant from Al al-Bayt University. The author highly appreciates the efforts of Professor Dr. Nadher Al Ansari, Dr. Ali Ahmed Bani Nasser and Mr. Musa Al-Zghoul during all stages of this research.

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Correspondence to Iyad Ahmed Abboud.

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Abboud, I.A. Mineralogy and chemistry of urinary stones: patients from North Jordan. Environ Geochem Health 30, 445–463 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-007-9128-7

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-007-9128-7

Keywords

  • Urinary stones
  • Renal stones
  • Kidney stones
  • Calcium oxalate
  • Medical geochemistry
  • Medical geology
  • X-ray diffraction
  • X-ray fluorescence