In-situ electrochemical measurements of total concentration and speciation of heavy metals in acid mine drainage (AMD): assessment of the use of anodic stripping voltammetry

Abstract

We assessed the use of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) for in-situ determinations of both total concentration and speciation of dissolved heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in acid mine drainage (AMD). In the Kwangyang Au–Ag mine area of South Korea, different sites with varying water chemistry within an AMD were studied with a field portable anodic stripping voltammeter. Anodic stripping voltammetry after wet oxidation (acidification) was very sensitive enough to determine total concentration of dissolved Cd because Cd was dominantly present as ‘labile’ species, whilst the technique was not so effective for determining total Cu especially in the downstream sites from the retention pond, due to its complexation with organic matter. For dissolved Pb, the concentrations determined by ASV after wet oxidation generally agreed with those by ICP-AES. In the downstream samples (pH>5), however, ASV data after wet oxidation were lower than ICP-AES data because a significant fraction of dissolved Pb was present in those samples as ‘inert’ species associated with colloidal iron oxide particles. The determination of total dissolved Zn by ASV after wet oxidation appeared to be unsatisfactory for the samples with high Cu content, possibly due to the interference by the formation of Zn–Cu intermetallic compounds on the mercury coated electrode. In AMD samples with high dissolved iron, use of ultraviolet irradiation was not effective for determining total concentrations because humate destruction by UV irradiation possibly resulted in the removal of a part of dissolved heavy metals from waters through the precipitation of iron hydroxides.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Achterberg EP, Herzl VMC, Braungardt CB, Millward GE, 2003, Metal behaviour in an estuary by acid mine drainage: the role of particulate matter, Environ Pollut 121:283–292

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Alonso E, Santos A, Callejón M, Jiménez JC: 2004, Speciation as a screening tool for the determination of heavy metal surface water pollution in the Guadiamar river basin, Chemosphere 56:561–570

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Baeyens W, Goeyens L, Monteny F, Elskens M: 1998, Effect of organic complexation on the behavior of dissolved Cd, Cu and Zn in the Scheldt estuary, Hydrobiologia 366:81–90

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Batley GE, Gardner D: 1978, Copper, lead and cadmium speciation in some estuarine and coastal marine waters, Estuar Coast Mar Sci 7:59–70

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Copeland TR, Osteryoung RA, Skogerboe RK: 1974, Elimination of copper–zinc intermetallic interferences in anodic stripping voltammetry, Anal Chem 46:2093–2097

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Donat JR, Bruland KW: 1990, A comparison of two voltammetric techniques for determining zinc speciation in Northeast Pacific Ocean waters, Mar Chem 28:301–323

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Donat JR, Lao KA, Bruland KW: 1994, Speciation of dissolved copper and nickel in South San Francisco Bay: a multi-method approach, Anal Chim Acta 284:547–571

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Florence TM: 1977, Trace metal species in fresh waters, Water Res 11:681–687

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Florence TM: 1982, The speciation of trace elements in waters, Talanta 29:345–364

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Florence TM: 1986, Electrochemical approaches to trace element speciation in waters: a review, Analyst 111:489–505

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Florence TM: 1989, Electrochemical techniques for trace element speciation in waters. In: Bately GE (eds). Trace Element Speciation: Analytical Methods and Problems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 77–116

    Google Scholar 

  12. Florence TM, Batley GE: 1980, Chemical speciation in natural waters, Critic Rev Anal Chem 9:219–296

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Fox LE: 1988, The solubility of colloidal ferric hydroxide and its relevance to iron concentrations in river water, Geochim Cosmochim Acta 52:771–777

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Gerringa LJA, Poortvliet TCW, Hummel H: 1996, Comparison of chemical speciation of copper in the Oosterschelde and Westerschelde estuaries, Netherland, Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 42:629–643

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Hall GEM, Vaive JE: 1992, Application of field portable anodic stripping voltammeter to the analysis of sulphide-selective leaches and waters, Chem Geol 97: 295–306

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Huang S, Wang Z: 2003, Application of anodic stripping voltammetry to predict the bioavailable/toxic concentration of Cu in natural water, Appl Geochem 18:1215–1223

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Hudson RJM: 1998, Which aqueous species control the rates of trace metal uptake by aquatic biota? Observations and predictions of non-equilibrium effects, Sci Total Environ 219: 95–115

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Jensen DL, Ledin A, Christensen TH: 1999, Speciation of heavy metals in landfill leachate polluted groundwater, Water Res 33:2642–2650

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Jung HB, Yun ST, Mayer B, Kim SO, Park SS, Lee PK: 2005, Transport and sediment–water partitioning of trace metals in acid mine drainage: an example from the abandoned Kwangyang Au–Ag mine area, Environ Geol 48:437–449

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Kozelka PB, Bruland KW 1998, Chemical speciation of dissolved Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in Narrangansett bay, Rhode Island, Mar Chem 60:267–282

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Kozelka PB, Sañudo-Wilhelmy S, Flegel AR, Bruland KW 1997, Physico-chemical speciation of lead in south San Francisco bay, Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 44:649–658

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Laxen DP, Harrison RM: 1981, A scheme for the physico-chemical speciation of trace metals in freshwater samples, Sci Total Environ 19:59–82

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Mota AM, Simoes ML: 1996, Direct methods of speciation of heavy metals in natural waters, Chem Anal 135:21–26

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Nürnberg HW: 1983, Investigations on heavy metals speciation in natural waters by voltammetric procedures, Fresenius’ J Anal Chem 316:557–565

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Obiols J, Devesa R, Malet A: 1988, Study of the copper–zinc interference in potentiometric stripping analysis, Analyst 113:1529–1532

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Pickering WF: 1995, General strategies for speciation. In: Ure AM, Davidson CM, (eds). Chemical Speciation in the Environment. Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 9–32

    Google Scholar 

  27. Rozan TF, Benoit G: 1999, Geochemical factors controlling free Cu ion concentrations in river water, Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:3311–3319

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Sholkovitz ER: 1978, The flocculation of dissolved Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Ni, Co and Cd during estuarine mixing, Earth Planet Sci Lett 41:77–86

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. So CS, Yun ST, Kwon SH: 1999, Gold–silver mineralization of the Jungheung and Okdong mines, Kwangyang area, Korea: mineralogical and geochemical change in a cooling hydrothermal system. Neues Jahrb Mineral Abh 174:223–248

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Sunda WG. 1994 Trace metal/phytoplankton interactions in the sea. In Bidoglio G, Stumm E, eds. Chemistry of Aquatic Systems: Local and Global Perspectives. New York: Kluwer, pp. 213–247

  31. Yun ST, Jung HB, So CS: 2001, Transport, fate and speciation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd) in mine drainage: geochemical modeling and anodic stripping voltammetric analysis, Environ Technol 22:749–770

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported by the Environmental Geosphere Research Lab (EGRL) of Korea University. We thank anonymous journal reviewers for providing many constructive comments on the manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Seong-Taek Yun.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Jung, HB., Yun, ST., Kim, SO. et al. In-situ electrochemical measurements of total concentration and speciation of heavy metals in acid mine drainage (AMD): assessment of the use of anodic stripping voltammetry. Environ Geochem Health 28, 283–296 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-006-9044-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • acid mine drainage
  • anodic striping voltammetry (ASV)
  • heavy metals
  • Kwangyang
  • South Korea
  • speciation