Species specific hydrodynamic characterization is essential for assessing the suitability of various types of mangroves in coastal protection as the dissipation of wave energy within the mangroves is governed primarily by various aspects which are specific to the species to which they belong. In the present study a specific mangrove species was selected and its wave attenuation characteristics were studied with the help of scaled physical models under controlled wave and vegetation conditions in a laboratory wave flume. The plant was initially identified as Rhizophora Mucronata and the scaled models prepared had the same biomechanical properties as that of the parent plant. Effect of root soil was incorporated in scaled models as bottom friction. Wave heights were measured after the forest models to evaluate the wave attenuation. It was found that wave heights were following the exponential decay equation of Kobayashi et al. (1993) except for the cases which have incorporated bottom friction. For such cases exponential decay equation was modified by incorporating a new parameter ‘d/D50’. Drag coefficients (CD), characteristic of the species were also determined without incorporating and with incorporating the effect of bottom friction of root soil. It is seen that drag coefficients are following an inverse relation with non-dimensional numbers (Re and KC). Empirical relations were developed between CD and a modified Keulegan Carpenter number (modified considering mangrove root submergence and mean particle size) for predicting the drag coefficients specific to Rhizophora Mucronata species for a variety of wave and water level conditions.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Alongi DM (2008) Mangrove forests: Resilience, protection from tsunamis, and responses to global climate change. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 76:1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2007.08.024
Vo-Luong P, Massel P (2008) Energy dissipation in non-uniform mangrove forests of arbitrary depth. J Mar Syst 74:603–622. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.05.004
Fernando HJS, McCulley JL, Mendis SG, Perera K (2005) Coral poaching worsens tsunami destruction. EOS 86(301):304
Fernando HJS, Samarawickrama SP, Balasubramanian S, Hettiarachchi SSL, Voropayev S (2008) Effects of porous barriers such as coral reefs on coastal wave propagation. Journal of Hydro-environment Research 1:187–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jher.2007.12.003
Quartel S, Kroon A, Augustinus PGEF, Santen V, Tri NH (2007) Wave attenuation in coastal mangroves in the Red River delta. Vietnam Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 29:576–584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2006.05.008
Zhang X, Chua VP, Cheong H-F (2015) Hydrodynamics in mangrove prop roots and their physical properties. Journal of Hydro-environment Research 9:281–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jher.2014.07.010
Brinkman RM, Massel SR, Ridd PV, and Furukawa K (1997) Surface wave attenuation in mangrove forests. Pacific Coasts and Ports’97: 13th Australasian Coastal and Ocean Engineering Conference and 6th Australasian Port and Harbour Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Mazda Y, Magi M, Ikeda Y, Kurokawa T, Asano T (2006) Wave reduction in a mangrove forest dominated by Sonneratia sp. Wetlands Ecol Manage 14:365–378. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11273-005-5388-0
Horstman EM, Dohmen-Janssen CM, Narra PMF, Van den Berg NJF, Siemerink M, Hulscher SJM (2014) Wave attenuation in Mangroves: A quantitative approach to field observations. Coast Eng 94:47–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2014.08.005
Mclvor A, Moller I, Spencer T, Spalding M (2012) Reduction of Wind and Swell waves by Mangroves. Natural Coastal Protection Series: Report 1. ISSN 2050–7941:1–27
Suzuki T, Zijlema M, Burger B, Meijer MC, Narayan S (2011) Wave dissipation by vegetation with layer schematization in SWAN. Coast Eng 59:64–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2011.07.006
Maza M, Lara JL, Losada IJ (2015) Tsunami wave interactions with mangrove forests-a 3-D numerical approach. Coast Eng 98:33–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2015.01.002
Parvathy KG, Umesh PA, Bhaskaran PK (2017) Inter-seasonal variability of wind-waves and their attenuation characteristics by mangroves in a reversing wind system. Int J Climatol 37:5089–5106. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.5147
Parvathy KG, Bhaskaran PK (2017) Wave attenuation in presence of mangroves: a sensitivity study for varying bottom slopes. Int. J. Ocean and Climatic Systems 8:126–134. https://doi.org/10.1177/1759313117702919
Zhang K, Liu H, Li Y, Xu H, Shen J, Rhome J, Smith TJ (2012) The role of mangroves in attenuating storm surges. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 102–103:12–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2012.02.021
Mazda Y, Magi M, Motohiko K, Hong PN (1997) Mangroves as a coastal protection from waves in the Tong King delta Vietnam. Mangroves and Salt Marshes 1:127–135. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009928003700
Vo-Luong P, Massel SR (2006) Experiments on wave motion and suspended sediment concentration at Nang Hai, Can Gio mangrove forest Southern Vietnam. Oceanologia 48:23–40
Bao TQ (2011) Effect of mangrove forest structures on wave attenuation in coastal Vietnam. Oceanologia 53:807–818. https://doi.org/10.5697/oc.53-3.807
Horstman E, Dohmen-Janssen M, Narra P, Van den Berg NJF, Siemerink M, Balke T, Bouma T, Hulscher S (2012) Wave Attenuation in mangrove forests; Field data obtained in Trang, Thailand. Coastal Engineering Proceedings. pp:1–15. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9753/icce.v33.waves.40
Montgomery JM, Bryan KR, Horstman EM, Mullarney JC (2018) Attenuation of tides and surges by mangroves: contrasting case studies from New Zealand. Water 10:1–16. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10091119
Samiksha SV, Vethamony P, Bhaskaran PK, Pednekar P, Jishad M, James RA (2019) Attenuation of wave energy due to mangrove vegetation off Mumbai. India Energies 12:1–16. https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224286
Parvathy KG, Bhaskaran PK (2020) Role of mangroves in wind-wave climate modeling–A review. J Coast Conserv 24:1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11852-020-00740-0
Hashim AM, Catherine SMP (2013) A Laboratory Study on Wave Reduction by Mangrove Forests. Procedia APCBEE 5:27–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2013.05.006
Strusinska-Correla A, Husrin S, Oumeraci H (2013) Tsunami damping by mangrove forest: a laboratory study using parameterized trees. Nat Hazard Earth Sys Sci 13:483–503. https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-13-483-2013
Asano T, Tsutsui S, Sakai T (1988)Wave damping characteristics due to seaweed. 35th Coastal Engineering Conference in Japan, JSCE (in Japanese). pp: 138–142.
Blackmar PJ, Cox DT, Wu W (2014) Laboratory observations and Numerical simulations of wave height attenuation in heterogeneous vegetation. J Waterway Port, Coast, Ocean Eng 140:56–65. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WW.1943-5460.0000215
Phan KL, Stive MJF, Zijlema M, Truong HS, Aarninkhof SGJ (2019) The effects of wave non-linearity on wave attenuation by vegetation. Coast Eng 147:63–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2019.01.004
KOODU- Prakrithiyude Spandanam (A nature magazine in local language (Malayalam)).May 2015. Volume 3, www.kooduonline.com.
Dalrymple RA, Kirby JT, Hwang PA (1984) Wave diffraction due to areas of energy dissipation. J Waterway Port, Coastal, Ocean Eng 110:67–79. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(1984)110:1(67)
Méndez FJ, Losada IJ (2004) An empirical model to estimate the propagation of random breaking and nonbreaking waves over vegetation fields. Coast Eng 51:103–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coasaleng.2003.11.003
Kobayashi N, Raichle AW, Asano T (1993) Wave Attenuation by Vegetation. J Waterway, Port, Coast, Ocean Eng 119:30–48. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-950X(1993)119:1(30)
Augustin LN, Irish JL, Lynett P (2009) Laboratory and numerical studies of wave damping by emergent and near-emergent wetland vegetation. Coast Eng 56:332–340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2008.09.004
Koftis T, Prinos PG, Stratigaki V (2013) Wave damping over artificial Posidonia Oceanica meadow: A large scale experimental Study. Coast Eng 73:71–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2012.10.007
Ozren Y, Wren DG, Wu W (2014) Experimental Investigation of Wave attenuation through Model and Live vegetation. Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering 140: 04014019 (1–12). https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)WW.1943-5460.0000251
Keulegan GH (1938) Laws of turbulent flow in open channels. J Res Natl Bur Stand 21:707–741
Charlton FG, Brown PM, Benson RW (1978) The hydraulic geometry of some gravel river in Britain. Report IT 180. Hydraulics Research Station. Wallingford: United Kingdom.
Van Rijn LC (1984) Sediment transport. Part III: Bed forms and alluvial roughness. J Hydraul Eng 110:1733–1754. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(1984)110:12(1733)
Mazda Y, Wolanski EJ, King BA, Sase A, Ohtsuka D, Magi M (1997) Drag force due to vegetation in mangrove swamps. Mangroves Salt Marshes 1:193–199. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009949411068
Bray DI (1979) Estimating average velocity in gravel-bed River. J. Hydraul Div 105:1103–1122
We gratefully acknowledge the supports from the authorities of College of Engineering Trivandrum, Kerala, India for providing sufficient facilities to complete this laboratory investigation. We also remember with gratitude the helps rendered by Mr. M R Anil Kumar, Former Executive Engineer, Department of Agriculture, Kerala.
No funding was received for conducting this study.
Conflicts of interest
Availability of data and material
No external data sources were used.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Lekshmy Devi, C.A., Jairaj, P.G. & Balan, K. Laboratory investigations on wave attenuation characteristics of Rhizophora Mucronata poir using physical models with bottom friction. Environ Fluid Mech 21, 361–381 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10652-020-09777-z
- Wave attenuation
- Damping parameter
- Bottom friction
- Physical model