Environmental Fluid Mechanics

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 25–49 | Cite as

Initial mixing of inclined dense jet in perpendicular crossflow

  • Chris C. K. Lai
  • Joseph H. W. LeeEmail author
Original Article


A comprehensive experimental investigation for an inclined (\(60^{\circ }\) to vertical) dense jet in perpendicular crossflow—with a three-dimensional trajectory—is reported. The detailed tracer concentration field in the vertical cross-section of the bent-over jet is measured by the laser-induced fluorescence technique for a wide range of jet densimetric Froude number \(Fr\) and ambient to jet velocity ratios \(U_r\). The jet trajectory and dilution determined from a large number of cross-sectional scalar fields are interpreted by the Lagrangian model over the entire range of jet-dominated to crossflow-dominated regimes. The mixing during the ascent phase of the dense jet resembles that of an advected jet or line puff and changes to a negatively buoyant thermal on descent. It is found that the mixing behavior is governed by a crossflow Froude number \(\mathbf{F} = U_r Fr\). For \(\mathbf{F} < 0.8\), the mixing is jet-dominated and governed by shear entrainment; significant detrainment occurs and the maximum height of rise \(Z_{max}\) is under-predicted as in the case of a dense jet in stagnant fluid. While the jet trajectory in the horizontal momentum plane is well-predicted, the measurements indicate a greater rise and slower descent. For \(\mathbf{F} \ge 0.8\) the dense jet becomes significantly bent-over during its ascent phase; the jet mixing is dominated by vortex entrainment. For \(\mathbf{F} \ge 2\), the detrainment ceases to have any effect on the jet behavior. The jet trajectory in both the horizontal momentum and buoyancy planes are well predicted by the model. Despite the under-prediction of terminal rise, the jet dilution at a large number of cross-sections covering the ascent and descent of the dense jet are well-predicted. Both the terminal rise and the initial dilution for the inclined jet in perpendicular crossflow are smaller than those of a corresponding vertical jet. Both the maximum terminal rise \(Z_{max}\) and horizontal lateral penetration \(Y_{max}\) follow a \(\mathbf{F}^{-1/2}\) dependence in the crossflow-dominated regime. The initial dilution at terminal rise follows a \(S \sim \mathbf{F}^{1/3}\) dependence.


Mixing and transport Negative buoyant jets Dense jets Desalination Vortex entrainment Jet integral models 



This research is supported by a Grant from the Hong Kong Research Grants Council (HKU 713908E)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zachry Department of Civil EngineeringTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringHong Kong University of Science and TechnologyHong KongChina

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