Environmental and Ecological Statistics

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 393–412 | Cite as

Prediction of non-methane hydrocarbons in Kuwait using regression and Bayesian kriged Kalman model

  • Fahimah A. Al-AwadhiEmail author
  • Ali Alhajraf


This article describes the hierarchical Bayesian approach for predicting average hourly concentrations of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in Kuwait where records of six monitor stations located in different sites are observed at successive time points. Our objective is to predict the concentration level of NMHC in unmonitored areas. Here an attempt is made for the prediction of unmeasured concentration of NMHC at two additional locations in Kuwait. We will implement a kriged Kalman filter (KKF) hierarchical Bayesian approach assuming a Gaussian random field, a technique that allows the pooling of data from different sites in order to predict the exposure of the NMHC in different regions of Kuwait. In order to increase the accuracy of the KKF we will use other statistical models such as imputation, regression, principal components, and time series analysis in our approach. We considered four different types of imputation techniques to address the missing data. At the primary level, the logarithmic field is modeled as a trend plus Gaussian stochastic residual model. The trend model depends on hourly meteorological predictors which are common to all sites. The residuals are then modeled using KKF, and the prediction equation is derived conditioned on adjoining hours. On this basis we developed a spatial predictive distribution for these residuals at unmonitored sites. By transforming the predicted residuals back to the original data scales, we can impute Kuwait’s hourly non-methane hydrocarbons field.


Imputation Space–time models Spatial interpolation Kriging Kalman filter Hierarchical model Spatial prediction Non-methane hydrocarbons Air pollution 


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Statistics and Operations ResearchKuwait UniversityKhaldiyaKuwait
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of NursingThe Public Authority for Applied Education and TrainingKhaldiyaKuwait

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