## Abstract

A challenge in mathematics education research is to coordinate different analyses to develop a more comprehensive account of teaching and learning. We contribute to these efforts by expanding the constructs in Cobb and Yackel’s (Educational Psychologist 31:175–190, 1996) interpretive framework that allow for coordinating social and individual perspectives. This expansion involves four different constructs: disciplinary practices, classroom mathematical practices, individual participation in mathematical activity, and mathematical conceptions that individuals bring to bear in their mathematical work. We illustrate these four constructs for making sense of students’ mathematical progress using data from an undergraduate mathematics course in linear algebra.

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## Acknowledgments

This material is based upon the work supported by the National Science Foundation under collaborative grants DRL 0634099 and DRL 0634074 and collaborative grants DUE 1245673, DUE 1245796, and DUE 1246083. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

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Rasmussen, C., Wawro, M. & Zandieh, M. Examining individual and collective level mathematical progress.
*Educ Stud Math* **88, **259–281 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10649-014-9583-x

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### Keywords

- Individual and collective
- Emergent perspective
- Linear algebra
- Practices