Advertisement

Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 431–455 | Cite as

Studying and Constructing Concept Maps: a Meta-Analysis

  • Noah L. Schroeder
  • John C. Nesbit
  • Carlos J. Anguiano
  • Olusola O. Adesope
Meta-Analysis

Abstract

A concept map is a node-link diagram in which each node represents a concept and each link identifies the relationship between the two concepts it connects. We investigated how using concept maps influences learning by synthesizing the results of 142 independent effect sizes (n = 11,814). A random-effects model meta-analysis revealed that learning with concept and knowledge maps produced a moderate, statistically significant effect (g = 0.58, p < 0.001). A moderator analysis revealed that creating concept maps (g = 0.72, p < 0.001) was associated with greater benefit relative to respective comparison conditions than studying concept maps (g = 0.43, p < 0.001). Additional moderator analyses indicated learning with concept maps was superior to other instructional comparison conditions, and was effective across science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and non-STEM knowledge domains. Further moderator analyses, as well as implications for theory and practice, are provided.

Keywords

Concept map Knowledge map Meta-analysis cmap kmap 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Funding

Not applicable (no funding).

Supplementary material

10648_2017_9403_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (273 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 272 kb)

References

*Indicates Study Included in the Analysis.

  1. *Abayomi, B. I. (1988). The effects of concept mapping and cognitive style on science achievement (Doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University College of Education, 1988). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49, 1420.Google Scholar
  2. *Acat, M. B. (2008). Effectiveness of concept maps in vocabulary instruction. Egitim Arastirmalari-Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 33, 1–16.Google Scholar
  3. *Adesope, O. O., & Nesbit, J. C. (2013). Animated and static concept maps enhance learning from spoken narration. Learning and Instruction, 27, 1–10. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. *Akay, S. Ö., Kaya, B., & Kiliҫ, S. (2012). The effects of concept maps on the academic success and attitudes of 11th graders while teaching urinary system. International Online Journal of Primary Education, 1(1), 23–30.Google Scholar
  5. *Akpinar, E., & Ergin, O. (2008). Fostering primary school students’ understanding of cells and other related concepts with interactive computer animation instruction accompanied by teacher and student-prepared concept maps. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 9(1). Retrieved from http://www.ied.edu.hk/apfslt/v9_issue1/akpinar/index.htm.
  6. *Al Khawaldeh, S. A., & Al Olaimat, A. M. (2010). The contribution of conceptual change texts accompanied by concept mapping to eleventh-grade students understanding of cellular respiration concepts. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 19, 115–125. doi: 10.1007/s10956-009-9185-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amadieu, F., van Gog, T., Paas, F., Tricot, A., & Mariné, C. (2009). Effects of prior knowledge and concept-map structure on disorientation, cognitive load, and learning. Learning and Instruction, 19(5), 376–386. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.02.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. *Amer, A. A. (1994). The effect of knowledge-map and underlining training on the reading comprehension of scientific texts. English for Specific Purposes, 13, 35–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. *Asan, A. (2007). Concept mapping in science class: a case study of fifth grade students. Educational Technology & Society, 10(1), 186–195.Google Scholar
  10. *Berry, J. L. (2011). The effects of concept mapping and questioning on students’ organization and retention of science knowledge while using interactive informational read-alouds. Doctoral Dissertation, Texas A&M University.Google Scholar
  11. *Bahr, G. S., & Dansereau, D. F. (2001). Bilingual knowledge maps (BiK-maps) in second-language vocabulary learning. Journal of Experimental Education, 70, 5–24. doi: 10.1080/00220970109599496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. *Bahr, G. S., & Dansereau, D. F. (2005). Bilingual knowledge maps (BiK-maps) as a presentation format: delayed recall and training effects. Journal of Experimental Education, 73, 101–118. doi: 10.3200/JEXE.73.2.101-118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. *Blankenship, J., & Dansereau, D. F. (2000). The effect of animated node-link displays on information recall. Journal of Experimental Education, 68, 293–308. doi: 10.1080/00220970009600640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blunt, J. R., & Karpicke, J. D. (2014). Learning with retrieval-based concept mapping. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(3), 849–858. doi: 10.1037/a0035934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. *Bodolus, J. E. (1986). The use of a concept mapping strategy to facilitate meaningful learning for ninth grade students in science (Doctoral dissertation, Temple University, 1986). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 3387.Google Scholar
  16. *BouJaoude, S., & Attieh, M. (2008). The effect of using concept maps as study tools on achievement in chemistry. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science, & Technology Education, 4(3), 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. *Bramwell-Lalor, S., & Rainford, M. (2014). The effects of using concept mapping for improving advanced level biology students’ lower- and higher-order cognitive skills. International Journal of Science Education, 36(5), 839–864. doi: 10.1080/09500693.2013.829255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cañas, A. J., Hill, G., Carff, R., Suri, N., Lott, J., Gómez, G., Eskridge, T., Arroyo, M., & Carvajal, R. (2004). CmapTools: a knowledge modeling and sharing environment. In A. J. Cañas, J. D. Novak, & F. M. González (Eds.), Concept maps: Theory, methodology, technology. Proceedings of the first international conference on concept mapping Vol. I (pp. 125–133). Pamplona: Editorial Universidad Pública de Navarra.Google Scholar
  19. *Chape, E. A. (2005). Improving clinical reasoning of physical therapist assistant students: a comparison of concept mapping and discussion in case-based learning. Doctoral Dissertation, Capella University.Google Scholar
  20. *Chang, K., Sung, Y., & Chen, I. (2002). The effect of concept mapping to enhance text comprehension and summarization. Journal of Experimental Education, 71, 5–23. doi: 10.1080/00220970209602054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. *Chang, W. (1994). The effects of using concept mapping to supplement class notes on the biology test scores of seventh-grade students in Taiwan, R.O.C. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa, 1994). Dissertation Abstracts International, 55, 3800.Google Scholar
  22. Chi, M. T. H., Bassok, M., Lewis, M. W., Reimann, P., & Glaser, R. (1989). Self-explanations: how students study and use examples in learning to solve problems. Cognitive Science, 18, 145–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. *Chin, D. B., Dohmen, I. M., & Schwartz, D. L. (2013). Young children can learn scientific reasoning with teachable agents. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 6(3), 248–257. doi: 10.1109/TLT.2013.24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. *Chiou, C. C. (2008). The effect of concept mapping on students’ learning achievements and interests. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 45(4), 375–387. doi: 10.1080/14703290802377240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. *Chiou, C. C. (2009). Effects of concept mapping strategy on learning performance in business and economics statistics. Teaching in Higher Education, 14(1), 55–69. doi: 10.1080/13562510802602582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. *Chou, P. N. (2009). The effect of varied concept maps and self-directed learning ability on students’ hypermedia learning. Doctoral Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
  27. *Chou, P. N., Chen, W. F., & Dwyer, F. (2011). The effects of varied concept mapping on students’ hypermedia learning. International Journal of Instructional Media, 38(2), 177–186.Google Scholar
  28. *Chmielewski, T. L., & Dansereau, D. F. (1998). Enhancing the recall of text: knowledge mapping training promotes implicit transfer. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 407–413. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.90.3.407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. *Chularut, P., & DeBacker, T. K. (2004). The influence of concept mapping on achievement, self-regulation, and self-efficacy in students of English as a second language. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29, 248–263. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2003.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. *Cliburn Jr., J. W. (1985). An Ausubelian approach to instruction: the use of concept maps as advance organizers in a junior college anatomy and physiology class (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern Mississippi, 1985). Dissertation Abstracts International, 47, 852.Google Scholar
  31. *Conklin, E. (2007). Concept mapping: impact on content and organization of technical writing in science. Doctoral Dissertation, Walden University.Google Scholar
  32. *Czerniak, C. M., & Haney, J. J. (1998). The effect of collaborative concept mapping on elementary preservice teachers’ anxiety, efficacy, and achievement in physical science. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 9, 303–320. doi: 10.1023/A:1009431400397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. *D’Antoni, A., Zipp, G., Olson, V., & Cahill, T. (2010). Does the mind map learning strategy facilitate information retrieval and critical thinking in medical students? BMC Medical Education, 10(1), 61–72. doi: 10.1186/1472-6920-10-61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. *Dees, S. (1989). An analysis of the strategic processing of knowledge maps as text supplements and substitutes (Doctoral dissertation, Texas Christian University, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 50, 4252.Google Scholar
  35. Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Marsh, E. J., Nathan, M. J., & Willingham, D. T. (2013). Improving students’ learning with effective learning techniques: promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14(1), 4–58. doi: 10.1177/1529100612453266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Egger, M., Smith, G. D., Schneider, M., & Minder, C. (1997). Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple graphical test. British Medical Journal, 315, 629–634. doi: 10.1136/bmj.315.7109.629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. *Erdogan, Y. (2009). Paper-based and computer-based concept mappings: the effects on computer achievement, computer anxiety, and computer attitude. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(5), 821–836. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2008.00856.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. *Esiobu, G. O., & Soyibo, K. (1995). Effects of concept and vee mappings under three learning modes on students, cognitive achievement in ecology and genetics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32, 971–995. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660320908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. *Foor, J. L. (2011). The effectiveness of an online knowledge map instructional presentation. Doctoral Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
  40. Freeman, S., Eddy, S. L., McDonough, M., Smith, M. K., Okoroafor, N., Jordt, H., & Wenderoth, M. P. (2014). Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(23), 8410–8415. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1319030111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. *Gijlers, H., & de Jong, T. (2013). Using concept maps to facilitate collaborative simulation-based inquiry learning. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 22, 340–374. doi: 10.1080/10508406.2012.748664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. *González, H. L., Palencia, A. P., Umaña, L. A., Galindo, L., & Villafrade, M. L. A. (2008). Mediated learning experience and concept maps: a pedagogical tool for achieving meaningful learning in medical physiology students. Advances in Physiology Education, 32(4), 312–316. doi: 10.1152/advan.00021.2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. *Guastello, E. F., Beasley, M., & Sinatra, R. C. (2000). Concept mapping effects on science content comprehension of low-achieving inner-city seventh graders. Remedial and Special Education, 21, 356–365. doi: 10.1177/074193250002100605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. *Gurlitt, J., & Renkl, A. (2008). Are high-coherent concept maps better for prior knowledge activation? Differential effects of concept mapping tasks on high school vs. university students. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24, 407–419. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2008.00277.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. *Hagemans, M. G., van der Meij, H., & de Jong, T. (2013). The effects of a concept map-based support tool on simulation-based inquiry learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(1), 1–24. doi: 10.1037/a0029433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. *Hall, R. H., Dansereau, D. F., & Skaggs, L. P. (1992). Knowledge maps and the presentation of related information domains. Journal of Experimental Education, 61, 5–18. doi: 10.1080/00220973.1992.9943845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. *Hall, R. H., & O’Donnell, A. M. (1996). Cognitive and affective outcomes of learning from knowledge maps. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 21, 94–101. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1996.0008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. *Hall, R. H., & Sidio-Hall, M. A. (1994). The effect of color enhancement on knowledge map processing. Journal of Experimental Education, 62, 209–217. doi: 10.1080/00220973.1994.9943841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. *Haugwitz, M., Nesbit, J. C., & Sandmann, A. (2010). Cognitive ability and the instructional efficacy of collaborative concept mapping. Learning and Individual Differences, 20, 536–543. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2010.04.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. *Hayati, A. M., & Shariatifar, S. (2009). Mapping strategies. Journal of College Reading and Learning, 39(2), 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Horton, P. B., McConney, A. A., Gallo, M., Woods, A. L., Senn, G. J., & Hamelin, D. (1993). An investigation of the effectiveness of concept mapping as an instructional tool. Science Education, 77, 95–111. doi: 10.1002/sce.3730770107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. *Huang, H. S., Chiou, C. C., Chiang, H. K., Lai, S. H., Huang, C. Y., & Chou, Y. Y. (2012). Effects of multidimensional concept maps on fourth graders’ learning in web-based computer course. Computers & Education, 58, 863–873. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2011.10.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. *Hwang, G. J., Kuo, F. R., Chen, N. S., & Ho, H. J. (2014). Effects of an integrated concept mapping and web-based problem-solving approach on students’ learning achievements, perceptions and cognitive loads. Computers & Education, 71, 77–86. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.09.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. *Hwang, G. J., Shi, Y. R., & Chu, H. C. (2011). A concept map approach to developing collaborative mindtools for context-aware ubiquitous learning. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(5), 778–789. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01102.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. *Hwang, G. J., Yang, L. H., & Wang, S. Y. (2013). A concept map-embedded educational computer game for improving students’ learning performance in natural science courses. Computers & Education, 69, 121–130. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.07.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. *Jia, J. (2007). The effects of concept mapping as advance organizers in instructional designs for distance learning programs. Doctoral Dissertation, Wayne State University.Google Scholar
  57. *Jegede, O. J., Alaiyemola, F. F., & Okebukola, P. A. (1990). The effect of concept mapping on students’ anxiety and achievement in biology. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27, 951–960. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660271004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. *Johansson, K., Salanterä, S., & Katajisto, J. (2007). Empowering orthopaedic patients through preadmission education: results from a clinical study. Patient Education and Counseling, 66, 84–91. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2006.10.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. *Jolly, A. B. (1998). The effectiveness of learning with concept mapping on the science problem solving of sixth grade children (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, 1998). Dissertation Abstracts International, 59, 3356.Google Scholar
  60. *Kalhor, M., & Shakibaei, G. (2012). Teaching reading comprehension through concept map. Life Science Journal, 9(4), 725–731.Google Scholar
  61. Kalyuga, S. (2009). Knowledge elaboration: a cognitive load perspective. Learning and Instruction, 19(5), 402–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Karpicke, J. D., & Blunt, J. R. (2011). Retrieval practice produces more learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping. Science, 331, 772–775. doi: 10.1126/science.1199327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Karpicke, J. D., Blunt, J. R., Smith, M. A., & Karpicke, S. S. (2014). Retrieval-based learning: the need for guided retrieval in elementary school children. Cognition and Instruction, 3(3), 198–206. doi: 10.1016/j.jarmac.2014.07.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. *Keown, S. L. (2008). Effects of the use of thematic organizers in conjunction with concept mapping on learning, misconceptions, and retention in middle school science classes. Doctoral Dissertation, Tennessee State University.Google Scholar
  65. *Khajavi, Y., & Ketabi, S. (2012). Influencing EFL learners’ reading comprehension and self-efficacy beliefs: the effect of concept mapping strategy. Porta Linguarum, 17, 9–27.Google Scholar
  66. *Kim, P., & Olaciregui, C. (2008). The effects of a concept map-based information display in an electronic portfolio system on information procession and retention in a fifth-grade science class covering the Earth’s atmosphere. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(4), 700–714. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00763.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. *Kolloffel, B., Eysink, T. H. S., & de Jong, T. (2011). Comparing the effects of representational tools in collaborative and individual inquiry learning. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 6, 223–251. doi: 10.1007/s11412-011-9110-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. *Lambiotte, J. G., & Dansereau, D. F. (1992). Effects of knowledge maps and prior knowledge on recall of science lecture content. Journal of Experimental Education, 60, 189–201. doi: 10.1080/00220973.1992.9943875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. *Lambiotte, J. G., Skaggs, L. P., & Dansereau, D. F. (1993). Learning from lectures: effects of knowledge maps and cooperative review strategies. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 7, 483–497. doi: 10.1002/acp.2350070604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. *Lee, P. (1997). Integrating concept mapping and metacognitive methods in a hypermedia environment for learning science (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, 1997). Dissertation Abstracts International, 58, 3405.Google Scholar
  71. *Lee, J. W., & Segev, A. (2012). Knowledge maps for e-learning. Computers & Education, 59, 353–364. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.01.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. *Lehman, J. D., Carter, C., & Kahle, J. B. (1985). Concept mapping, vee mapping, and achievement: results of a field study with black high school students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 22, 663–673. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660220706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. *Ling, Y., & Boo, H. K. Concept mapping and pupils’ learning in primary science. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 8(2). Retrieved from http://www.ied.edu.hk/apfslt/v8_issue2/lingy/index.htm.
  74. *Liu, P. L., Chen, C. J., & Chang, Y. J. (2010). Effects of a computer-assisted concept mapping learning strategy on EFL college students’ English reading comprehension. Computers & Education, 54, 436–445. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.08.027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. *Marée, T. J., van Bruggen, J. M., & Jochems, W. M. G. (2013). Effective self-regulated science learning through multimedia-enriched skeleton concept maps. Research in Science & Technological Education, 31(1), 16–30. doi: 10.1080/02635143.2013.782283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. *Markow, P. G. (1996). The effects of student-constructed concept maps on achievement in a first-year college instructional chemistry laboratory (Doctoral dissertation, University of Connecticut, 1996). Dissertation Abstracts International, 56, 3900.Google Scholar
  77. Mayer, R. E., & Fiorella, L. (2014). Principles for reducing extraneous processing in multimedia learning: Coherence, signaling, redundancy, spatial contiguity, and temporal contiguity principles. The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (2nd ed.pp. 279–315). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  78. *Meijerink, R., & van der Veen, J. (2010). Incidental use of concept maps and its effects on student understanding of optics. Proceedings of the 2010 NARST Annual Meeting. Google Scholar
  79. *Miller, S. M., Geng, Y., Zheng, R. Z., & Dewald, A. (2012). Presentation of complex medical information: Interaction between concept maps and spatial ability on deep learning. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology, and Learning, 2(1), 42–53. doi: 10.4018/ijcbpl.2012010104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. *Moreland, J. L., Dansereau, D. F., & Chmielewski, T. L. (1997). Recall of descriptive information: the roles of presentation format, annotation strategy, and individual differences. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 521–533. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1997.0950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. *Morey, J. T., & Dansereau, D. F. (2010). Decision-making strategies for college students. Journal of College Counseling, 13, 155–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. *Nesbit, J. C., & Adesope, O. (2005). Dynamic concept maps. In P. Kommers & G. Richards (Eds.), Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2005 (pp. 4323–4329). Chesapeake: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.Google Scholar
  83. Nesbit, J. C., & Adesope, O. O. (2006). Learning with concept and knowledge maps: a meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 76(3), 413–448. doi: 10.3102/00346543076003413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. *Nesbit, J. C., & Adesope, O. O. (2011). Learning from animated concept maps with concurrent audio narration. The Journal of Experimental Education, 79, 209–230. doi: 10.1080/00220970903292918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nesbit, J. C., & Adesope, O. O. (2013). Concept maps for learning. Learning through visual displays (pp. 303–328). Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  86. *Nicoll, G., Francisco, J., & Nakhleh, M. (2001). An investigation of the value of using concept maps in general chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 78, 1111–1117. doi: 10.1021/ed078p1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. *Novak, A. D. (1994). The effects of cooperative learning with concept mapping in a preservice teacher education course (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 1994). Dissertation Abstracts International, 56, 895.Google Scholar
  88. Novak, J. D. (1990). Concept maps and vee diagrams: two metacognitive tools to facilitate learning. Instructional Science, 19, 29–52. doi: 10.1007/BF00377984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Novak, J. D. (2002). Meaningful learning: the essential factor for conceptual change in limited or inappropriate propositional hierarchies leading to empowerment of learners. Science Education, 86(4), 548–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Novak, J. D. & Cañas, A. J. (2008). The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct and use them. Technical Report IHMC CmapTools 2006–01 Rev 01–2008, Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition. Retrieved on June 12, 2016 from http://cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps.pdf.
  91. Novak, J. D., & Gowin, D. B. (1984). Learning how to learn. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  92. O’Donnell, A. M., Dansereau, D. F., & Hall, R. H. (2002). Knowledge maps as scaffolds for cognitive processing. Educational Psychology Review, 14(1), 71–86. doi: 10.1023/A:1013132527007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. *Olgun, Ö. S. Ç. (2008). Examining the fifth graders’ understanding of heat and temperature concepts via concept mapping. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi – H. U. Journal of Education, 34, 54–62.Google Scholar
  94. *Okebukola, P. A. (1990). Attaining meaningful learning of concepts in genetics and ecology: an examination of the potency of the concept-mapping technique. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27, 493–504. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660270508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. *Okebukola, P. A. (1992). Concept mapping with a cooperative learning flavor. American Biology Teacher, 54, 218–221. doi: 10.2307/4449458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. *Okebukola, P. A., & Jegede, O. J. (1988). Cognitive preference and learning-mode as determinants of meaningful learning through concept mapping. Science Education, 72, 489–500. doi: 10.1002/sce.3730720408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. *Özmen, H., Demırcıoğlu, G., & Coll, R. K. (2009). A comparative study of the effects of a concept mapping enhanced laboratory experience on Turkish high school students’ understanding of acid-base chemistry. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 7, 1–24. doi: 10.1007/s10763-007-9087-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. *Pankratius, W. J. (1987). Building an organized knowledge base: Concept mapping and achievement in secondary school physics (Doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University College of Education, 1987). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49, 474.Google Scholar
  99. *Patterson, M. E. (1993). Conceptual analysis of spatial–semantic display processing (knowledge maps) (Doctoral dissertation, Texas Christian University, 1993). Dissertation Abstracts International, 55, 226.Google Scholar
  100. *Patterson, M. E., Dansereau, D. F., & Newbern, D. (1992). Effects of communication aids and strategies on cooperative teaching. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 453–461. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.84.4.453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. *Patterson, M. E., Dansereau, D. F., & Wiegmann, D. A. (1993). Receiving information during a cooperative episode: effects of communication aids and verbal ability. Learning and Individual Differences, 5, 1–11. doi: 10.1016/1041-6080(93)90022-K.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. *Potelle, H., & Rouet, J. (2003). Effect of content representation and readers’ prior knowledge on the comprehension of hypertext. International Journal of Human–Computer Studies, 58, 327–345. doi: 10.1016/S1071-5819(03)00016-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. *Pickens, C. L. (2007). Concept mapping: methods to improve critical thinking. Doctoral Dissertation, Wayne State University.Google Scholar
  104. *Prater, D. L., & Terry, C. A. (1988). Effects of mapping strategies on reading comprehension and writing performance. Reading Psychology, 9, 101–120. doi: 10.1080/0270271880090203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. *Redford, J. S., Thiede, K. W., Wiley, J., & Griffin, T. D. (2012). Concept mapping improves metacomprehension accuracy among 7th graders. Learning and Instruction, 22, 262–270. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.10.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. *Rewey, K. L., Dansereau, D., Dees, S., Skaggs, L., & Pitre, U. (1992). Scripted cooperation and knowledge map supplements: effects on the recall of biological and statistical information. Journal of Experimental Education, 60, 93–107. doi: 10.1080/00220973.1991.10806582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. *Rewey, K. L., Dansereau, D. F., & Peel, J. L. (1991). Knowledge maps and information processing strategies. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 16, 203–214. doi: 10.1016/0361-476X(91)90021-C.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. *Rewey, K. L., Dansereau, D. F., Skaggs, L. P., Hall, R. H., & Pitre, U. (1989). Effects of scripted cooperation and knowledge maps on the processing of technical material. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 604–609. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.81.4.604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. *Reynolds, S. B., & Dansereau, D. (1990). The knowledge hypermap: an alternative to hypertext. Computers in Education, 14, 409–416. doi: 10.1016/0360-1315(90)90034-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. *Reynolds, S. B., Patterson, M. E., Skaggs, L. P., & Dansereau, D. F. (1991). Knowledge hypermap and cooperative learning. Computers in Education, 16, 167–173. doi: 10.1016/0360-1315(91)90023-K.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Rosenthal, R. (1995). Critiquing Pygmalion: a 25-year perspective. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 171–172. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.ep10772607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Rosenthal, R. (1979). The “file drawer problem” and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin, 86(3), 638–641. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.86.3.638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Salata, M. A. (1999). Concept maps as organizers in an introductory university level biology course (Doctoral dissertation, University of Virginia, 1999). Dissertation Abstracts International, 60, 1969.Google Scholar
  114. *Sas, M. (2008). The effects of students’ asynchronous online discussions of conceptual errors on intentionally flawed teacher-constructed concept maps. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Nevada – Las Vegas.Google Scholar
  115. *Sawaya, M. A. (2010). Concept mapping as a teaching strategy on knowledge of community/public health nursing among accelerated baccalaureate nursing students. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Northern Colorado.Google Scholar
  116. *Scandrett, J. F. (2005). The efficacy of concept mapping in aural skills training. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.Google Scholar
  117. *Schmid, R. F., & Telaro, G. (1990). Concept mapping as an instructional strategy for high school biology. Journal of Educational Research, 84, 78–85. doi: 10.1080/00220671.1990.10885996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. *Shaw, R. S. (2010). A study of learning performance of e-learning materials design with knowledge maps. Computers & Education, 54, 253–264. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.08.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. *Shaw, R. S., Keh, H. C., Huang, N. C., & Huang, T. C. (2011). Information security awareness on-line materials design with knowledge maps. International Journal of Distance Education Technologies, 9(4), 41–56. doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2032-2.ch021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. *Skaggs, L. P. (1988). The effects of knowledge maps and pictures on the acquisition of scientific information. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth.Google Scholar
  121. *Smith, B. E. (1992). Linking theory and practice in teaching basic nursing skills. Journal of Nursing Education, 31, 16–23. doi: 10.3928/0148-4834-19920101-06.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Smith, M. A., Blunt, J. R., Whiffen, J. W., & Karpicke, J. D. (2016). Does providing prompts during retrieval practice improve learning? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30, 544–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. *Spaulding, D. T. (1989). Concept mapping and achievement in high school biology and chemistry (Doctoral dissertation, Florida Institute of Technology, 1989). Dissertation Abstracts International, 50, 1619.Google Scholar
  124. *Stanisavljevic, J., & Djuric, D. (2013). The application of programmed instruction in fulfilling the physiology course requirement. Journal of Biological Education, 47(1), 29–38. doi: 10.1080/00219266.2012.753103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. *Su, Y., & Klein, J. D. (2006). Effects of navigation tools and computer confidence on performance and attitudes in a hypermedia learning environment. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 15(1), 87–106.Google Scholar
  126. *Surapaneni, K. M., & Tekian, A. (2013). Concept mapping enhances learning of biochemistry. Medical Education Online, 18, 20157. doi: 10.3402/meo.v18i0.20157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education Inc..Google Scholar
  128. *Tastan, I., Dıkmenlı, M., & Cardak, O. (2008). Effectiveness of the conceptual change texts accompanied by concept maps about students’ understanding of the molecules carrying genetic information. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning and Teaching, 9(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  129. *Uzuntiryaki, E., & Geban, Ö. (2005). Effect of conceptual change approach accompanied with concept mapping on understanding of solution concepts. Instructional Science, 33, 311–339. doi: 10.1007/s11251-005-2812-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. *Udupa, P. S. (1992). Concept mapping/cooperative learning as a technique to improve the learning of “at-risk” and nondisabled students (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1992). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 2757.Google Scholar
  131. *Umar, I. N. (1999). A study of the effects of cognitive styles and learning strategies among Malaysian pre-college students in a hypermedia environment. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, 1999). Dissertation Abstracts International, 61, 145.Google Scholar
  132. Van Gog, T. (2014). The signaling (or cueing) principle in multimedia learning. The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (2nd ed.pp. 263–278). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. *Veronese, C., Richards, J. B., Pernar, L., Sullivan, A. M., & Schwartzstein, R. M. (2013). A randomized pilot study of the use of concept maps to enhance problem-based learning among first-year medical students. Medical Teacher, 35(9), e1478–e1484. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2013.785628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. *Wachter, L. N. (1993). An investigation of the effects of hierarchical concept mapping as a prefatory organizer on fourth-grade students’ comprehension and retention of expository prose (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1993). Dissertation Abstracts International, 54, 2106.Google Scholar
  135. *Wallace, D. S., West, S. C., Ware, A. M., & Dansereau, D. F. (1998). The effect of knowledge maps that incorporate gestalt principles on learning. Journal of Experimental Education, 67, 5–16. doi: 10.1080/00220979809598341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. *Wang, A. (2007). The effects of varied instructional aids and field dependence-independence on learners’ structural knowledge in a hypermedia environment. Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio University.Google Scholar
  137. *Wang, C. X., & Dwyer, F. M. (2006). Instructional effects of three concept mapping strategies in facilitating student achievement. International Journal of Instructional Media, 33(2), 135–151.Google Scholar
  138. *Wiegmann, D. A. (1992). On the dual processing of spatial–graphic and verbal information (Doctoral dissertation, Texas Christian University, 1992). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 3193.Google Scholar
  139. *Willerman, M., & Mac Harg, R. A. (1991). The concept map as an advance organizer. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28, 705–712. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660280807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. *Yuruk, N., Beeth, M. E., & Andersen, C. (2009). Analyzing the effect of metaconceptual teaching practices on students’ understanding of force and motion concepts. Research in Science Education, 39, 449–475. doi: 10.1007/s11165-008-9089-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. *Zittle, F. J. (2001). The effect of web-based concept mapping on analogical transfer (Doctoral dissertation, University of New Mexico, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 3695.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Noah L. Schroeder
    • 1
  • John C. Nesbit
    • 2
  • Carlos J. Anguiano
    • 3
  • Olusola O. Adesope
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Leadership Studies in Education and OrganizationsWright State UniversityDaytonUSA
  2. 2.Faculty of EducationSimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada
  3. 3.Department of Educational Leadership, Sport Studies and Educational/Counseling Psychology, College of EducationWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

Personalised recommendations