Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 771–801 | Cite as

A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship Between Learning Outcomes and Parental Involvement During Early Childhood Education and Early Elementary Education

  • Xin MaEmail author
  • Jianping Shen
  • Huilan Y. Krenn
  • Shanshan Hu
  • Jing Yuan
Review Article


This meta-analysis examined the relationship between learning outcomes of children and educational involvement of parents during a unique period of early childhood education and early elementary education based on 100 independent effect sizes from 46 studies. Learning outcomes are academic achievement, and frameworks of parental involvement measure family involvement and partnership development. The relationship (with adjustment over frameworks and study features) indicated a strong and positive correlation (.509) between learning outcomes and parental involvement. Although types of parental (behavioral, personal, and intellectual) involvement and building institutional capacity demonstrated the greatest importance to the relationship, the role of parents (family involvement) was more important than the role of schools and communities (partnership development). For a strong relationship, behavioral involvement, home supervision, and home-school connection were the keys from family involvement, whereas capacity to engage parents, respectful and effective leadership in relation to families and children, and institutionalized authentic partnerships were the keys from partnership development.


Parental involvement Learning outcomes Meta-analysis Early childhood Elementary education 


Articles used in meta-analysis are marked with asterisks

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin Ma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jianping Shen
    • 2
  • Huilan Y. Krenn
    • 3
  • Shanshan Hu
    • 1
  • Jing Yuan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Educational, School, and Counseling PsychologyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational Leadership and Evaluation, Measurement, and ResearchWestern Michigan UniversityKalamazooUSA
  3. 3.W. K. Kellogg FoundationBattle CreekUSA

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