The Future of Student Self-Assessment: a Review of Known Unknowns and Potential Directions
- 1.7k Downloads
This paper reviews current known issues in student self-assessment (SSA) and identifies five topics that need further research: (1) SSA typologies, (2) accuracy, (3) role of expertise, (4) SSA and teacher/curricular expectations, and (5) effects of SSA for different students. Five SSA typologies were identified showing that there are different conceptions on the SSA components but the field still uses SSA quite uniformly. A significant amount of research has been devoted to SSA accuracy, and there is a great deal we know about it. Factors that influence accuracy and implications for teaching are examined, with consideration that students’ expertise on the task at hand might be an important prerequisite for accurate self-assessment. Additionally, the idea that SSA should also consider the students’ expectations about their learning is reflected upon. Finally, we explored how SSA works for different types of students and the challenges of helping lower performers. This paper sheds light on SSA research needs to address the known unknowns in this field.
KeywordsSelf-assessment Formative assessment Accuracy Construct validity Reliability Typologies of self-assessment
This position paper/ reflection would not have been possible without the ideas we exchanged with some of our colleagues (especially in a symposium on self-assessment at the EARLI 2013 conference). We would like to thank David Boud, David Carless, Filip Dochy, Kelvin Tan, and Maddalena Taras for their participation and contribution to the symposium on self-assessment that lead to this article. First author would like to also thank to Liria Fernandez for helping him to self-assess in the most important subject: life.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
First author funding via Ramón y Cajal program by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (Referencia: RYC-2013-13469) is acknowledged.
- American Educational Research Association (AERA), American Psychological Association (APA), & National Council for Measurement in Education (NCME). (1999). Standards for educational & psychological testing. Washington: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
- Andrade, H. L. (2010). Students as the definitive source of formative assessment: academic self-assessment and the self-regulation of learning. In H. L. Andrade & G. J. Cizek (Eds.), Handbook of formative assessment (pp. 90–105). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Andrade, H., & Du, Y. (2005). Student perspectives on rubric-referenced assessment. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(3), 1-11. Retrieved from http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=10&n=3
- Boekaerts, M. (2011). Emotions, emotion regulation, and self-regulation of learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 408–425). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Boud, D., & Brew, A. (1995). Developing a typology for learner self-assessment practices. Research and Development in Higher Education, 18, 130–135.Google Scholar
- Brennan, R. L. (Ed.). (2006). Educational measurement. Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Brown, G. T. L., Peterson, E. R., & Irving, S. E. (2009b). Beliefs that make a difference: adaptive and maladaptive self-regulation in students’ conceptions of assessment. In D. M. McInerney, G. T. L. Brown, & G. A. D. Liem (Eds.), Student perspectives on assessment: what students can tell us about assessment for learning (pp. 159–186). Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
- Cao, L., & Nietfeld, L. J. (2005). Judgment of learning, monitoring accuracy, and student performance in the classroom context. Current Issues in Education, 8(4). Retrieved from http://cie.ed.asu.edu/volume8/number4/
- Cowie, B. (2009). My teacher and my friends helped me learn: student perceptions and experiences of classroom assessment. In D. M. McInerney, G. T. L. Brown, & G. A. D. Liem (Eds.), Student perspectives on assessment: What students can tell us about assessment for learning (pp. 85–105). Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
- Dinsmore, D. L., & Wilson, H. E. (2015). Student participation in assessment: does it influence self-regulation? In G. T. L. Brown & L. R. Harris (Eds.), Handbook of human and social factors in assessment (pp. 1–43). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Fabriz, S., Dignath-van Ewijk, C., Poarch, G., & Büttner, G. (2013). Fostering self-monitoring of university students by means of a standardized learning journal—a longitudinal study with process analyses. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 1-17. doi: 10.1007/s10212-013-0196-z.
- Gao, M. (2009). Students’ voices in school-based assessment of Hong Kong: a case study. In D. M. McInerney, G. T. L. Brown, & G. A. D. Liem (Eds.), Student perspectives on assessment: What students can tell us about assessment for learning (pp. 107–130). Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
- Geisinger, K. F. (Ed.). (2010). APA handbook of testing and assessment in psychology. Washington: APA.Google Scholar
- Glaser, C., Kessler, C., Palm, D., & Brunstein, J. C. (2010). Improving fourth graders’ self-regulated writing skills: specialized and shared effects of process-oriented and outcome-related self-regulation procedures on students’ task performance, strategy use, and self-evaluation. Zeitschrift Fur Padagogische Psychologie, 24(3-4), 177–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Goodrich, H. W. (1996). Student self-assessment: at the intersection of metacognition and authentic assessment. (57). USA: ProQuest Information & Learning.Google Scholar
- Harris, L. R., & Brown, G. T. L. (2013). Opportunities and obstacles to consider when using peer- and self-assessment to improve student learning: Case studies into teachers' implementation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 36, 101–111. doi: 10.1016/j.tate.2013.07.008.
- Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: a synthesis of meta-analyses in education. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Hattie, J. A., & Brown, G. T. L. (2010). Assessment and evaluation. In C. Rubie-Davies (Ed.), Educational psychology: concepts, research and challenges (pp. 102–117). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation. (2003). The student evaluation standards: how to improve evaluations of students. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
- Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
- Kane, M. T. (2006). Validation. In R. L. Brennan (Ed.), Educational measurement (4th ed., pp. 17–64). Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
- Kostons, D. (2010). On the role of self‐assessment and task‐selection skills in self‐regulated learning. Open University.Google Scholar
- Lan, W. Y. (1998). Teaching self-monitoring skills in statistics. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Self-regulated learning: from teaching to self-reflective practice (pp. 86–105). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- McMillan, J. H., & Hearn, J. (2008). Student self-assessment: the key to stronger student motivation and higher achievement. Educational Horizons, 87, 40–49.Google Scholar
- Messick, S. (1989). Validity. In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Educational measurement (Vol 3) (pp. 13–103). Old Tappan: MacMillan.Google Scholar
- Narciss, S. (2008). Feedback strategies for interactive learning tasks. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. J. G. van Merriënboer, & M. P. Driscoll (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (3rd ed., pp. 125–143). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Panadero, E. (2011). Instructional help for self-assessment and self-regulation: evaluation of the efficacy of self-assessment scripts vs. rubrics. (Ph.D.), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.Google Scholar
- Panadero, E., & Alonso-Tapia, J. (2013). Self-assessment: Theoretical and practical connotations. When it happens, how is it acquired and what to do to develop it in our students. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 11(2), 551–576. doi: 10.14204/ejrep.30.12200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Panadero, E., & Jonsson, A. (2013). The use of scoring rubrics for formative assessment purposes revisited: A review. Educational Research Review, 9, 129–144. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2013.01.002.
- Panadero, E., Alonso-Tapia, J., & Huertas, J. A. (2014a). Rubrics vs. self-assessment scripts: effects on first year university students’ self-regulation and performance. Infancia y Aprendizaje: Journal for the Study of Education and Development, 37(1), 149–183. doi: 10.1080/02103702.2014.881655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Panadero, E., Jonsson, A., & Strijbos, J. W. (2016). Scaffolding self-regulated learning through self-assessment and peer assessment: guidelines for classroom implementation. In D. Laveault & L. Allal (Eds.), Assessment for learning: Meeting the challenge of implementation (pages to be assigned). Boston: Springer.Google Scholar
- Panadero, E., Klug, J., & Järvelä, S. (2015). Third wave of measurement in the self-regulated learning field: When measurement and intervention come hand in hand. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research. doi: 10.1080/00313831.2015.1066436.
- Raider-Roth, M. B. (2005). Trusting what you know: negotiating the relational context of classroom life. Teachers College Record, 107(4), 587–628.Google Scholar
- Roeser, R. W., Peck, S. C., & Nasir, N. S. (2006). Self and identity processes in school motivation, learning, and achievement. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (pp. 391–424). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Ross, J. A. (2006). The reliability, validity, and utility of self-assessment. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation, 11. Retrieved from http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=11&n=10
- Scriven, M. (1991). Beyond formative and summative evaluation. In M. W. McLaughlin & D. C. Phillips (Eds.), Evaluation & education: at quarter century (Vol. 90, Part II) (pp. 19–64). Chicago: NSSE.Google Scholar
- Shadish, W. R., Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (2002). Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
- Tan, K. H. K. (2001). Conceptions of student self-assessment. Unpublished PhD Thesis Confirmation Paper. University of Technology, Sydney.Google Scholar
- Tan, K. H. K. (2012a). Student self-assessment. Assessment, learning and empowerment. Singapore: Research Publishing.Google Scholar
- Tan, K. H. K. (2012b). Student self-assessment in terms of assessment. Student self-assessment. Assessment, learning and empowerment (pp. 15–28). Singapore: Research Publishing.Google Scholar
- Taras, M. (2015). Situating power potentials and dynamics of learners and tutors within self-assessment models. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 1-18. doi: 10.1080/0309877X.2014.1000283
- Winne, P. H. (2011). A cognitive and metacognitive analysis of self-regulated learning. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (pp. 15–32). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Zimmerman, B. J., & Moylan, A. R. (2009). Self-regulation: where metacognition and motivation intersect. In D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Handbook of metacognition in education (pp. 299–315). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar