Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 23–60 | Cite as

Disentangling Curiosity: Dimensionality, Definitions, and Distinctions from Interest in Educational Contexts

  • Emily M. GrossnickleEmail author
Review Article


Curiosity has received increasing attention in the educational literature, yet empirical investigations have been limited by inconsistent conceptualizations and the use of curiosity synonymously with other constructs, particularly interest. The purpose of this review is to critically examine the dimensionality, definitions, and measures of curiosity within educational settings, and address the boundaries between curiosity and interest. A systematic review of 39 articles from 2003 to 2013 revealed a reliance on self-report measures, a focus on curiosity as a personality trait, and definitions characterized by four themes, the most common of which were curiosity as a need for knowledge or information, and curiosity as a motivator of exploratory behavior. The overlap and relations between curiosity and interest are discussed, and it is proposed that an examination of (a) the role of knowledge, (b) goals and outcomes, and (c) stability and malleability provide a basis for differentiating curiosity and interest according to their essential characteristics.


Curiosity Interest Motivation 



The author would like to thank Patricia A. Alexander, Kathryn Wentzel, David Miele, and Denis Dumas for their helpful comments on an earlier draft of this manuscript, an anonymous reviewer for helpful feedback related to the need for theory-building, and Amy Koman for her assistance in coding.

Supplementary material

10648_2014_9294_MOESM1_ESM.docx (91 kb)
Table S1 (DOCX 90 kb)


References marked with an asterisk (*) are included in the systematic portion of this review

  1. Ainley, M. D. (1987). The factor structure of curiosity measures: breadth and depth of interest curiosity styles. Australian Journal of Psychology, 39(1), 53–59. doi: 10.1080/00049538708259035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ainley, M. (2006). Connecting with learning: motivation, affect, and cognition in interest processes. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 391–405. doi: 10.1007/s10648-006-9033-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ainley, M., & Ainley, J. (2011). Student engagement with science in early adolescence: the contribution of enjoyment to students’ continuing interest in learning about science. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36, 4–12. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2010.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ainley, M., & Hidi, S. (2014). Interest and enjoyment. In R. Pekrun & L. Linnenbrink-Garcia (Eds.), International handbook of emotions in education (pp. 205–227). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  5. Ainley, M., Hidi, S., & Berndorff, D. (2002). Interest, learning, and the psychological processes that mediate their relationship. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 545–561. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.94.3.545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alberti, E. T., & Witryol, S. L. (1994). The relationship between curiosity and cognitive ability in third- and fifth-grade children. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 155(2), 129–145. doi: 10.1080/00221325.1994.9914767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alexander, P. A. (1997). Mapping the multidimensional nature of domain learning: The interplay of cognitive, motivational, and strategic forces. In M. L. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 10, pp. 213–250). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  8. Alexander, P. A. (2003). The development of expertise: the journey from acclimation to proficiency. Educational Researcher, 32, 10–14. doi: 10.3102/0013189X032008010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Alexander, P. A., Murphy, P. K., Woods, B. S., Duhon, K. E., & Parker, D. (1997). College instruction and concomitant changes in students’ knowledge, interest, and strategy use: a study of domain learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 22, 125–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Arnone, M. P., & Grabowsky, B. L. (1992). Effects on children’s achievement and curiosity of variations in learner control over an interactive video lesson. Educational Technology Research and Development, 30, 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Arnone, M. P., & Grabowsky, B. L. (1994). Curiosity as a personality variable influencing learning in a learner controlled lesson with and without advisement. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42, 5–20. doi: 10.1007/BF02298167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Arnone, M. P., Reynolds, R., & Marshall, T. (2009). The effect of early adolescents’ psychological needs satisfaction upon their perceived competence in information skills and intrinsic motivation for research. School Libraries Worldwide, 15, 115–134.Google Scholar
  13. Arnone, M. P., Small, R. V., Chauncey, S. A., & McKenna, H. P. (2011). Curiosity, interest, and engagement in technology-pervasive learning environments: a new research agenda. Educational Technology Research and Development, 59, 181–198. doi: 10.1007/s11423-011-9190-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baranik, L. E., Barron, K. E., & Finney, S. J. (2010). Examining specific versus general measures of achievement goals. Human Performance, 23, 155–172. doi: 10.1080/08959281003622180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berlyne, D. E. (1949). “Interest” as a psychological concept. British Journal of Psychology, 45, 184–195.Google Scholar
  16. Berlyne, D. E. (1954). A theory of human curiosity. British Journal of Psychology, 45, 180–191. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1954.tb01243.x.Google Scholar
  17. Berlyne, D. E. (1960). Conflict, arousal, and curiosity. New York: McGraw-Hill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Berlyne, D. E. (1974). Studies in the new experimental aesthetics: Steps toward and objective psychology of aesthetic appreciation. Washington: Hemisphere.Google Scholar
  19. Berridge, K. C., Robinson, T. E., & Aldridge, J. W. (2009). Dissecting components of reward: ‘Liking’, ‘wanting’, and learning. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 9(1), 65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beswick, D. G., & Tallmadge, K. (1971). Reexamination of two learning style studies in the light of the cognitive process theory of curiosity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(6), 456–462. doi: 10.1037/h0031817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bleidorn, W., Kandler, C., Reimann, R., Angleitner, A., & Spinath, F. M. (2009). Patterns and sources of adult personality development: growth curve analyses of the NEO PI-R scales in a longitudinal twin study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 142–155. doi: 10.1037/a0015434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Blonigan, D. M., Carlson, M. D., Hicks, B. M., Kreuger, R. F., & Iacono, W. G. (2008). Stability and change in personality traits from late adolescence to early adulthood: a longitudinal twin study. Journal of Personality, 76, 229–266. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2007.00485.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bloom, B. S., Englehart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objects, handbook I: cognitive domain. Reading: Addison Wesley.Google Scholar
  24. Boscolo, P., Ariasi, N., Del Favero, L., & Ballarin, C. (2011). Interest in expository text: how does it flow from reading to writing? Learning and Instruction, 21, 467–480. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2010.07.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bowler, L. (2010). The self-regulation of curiosity and interest during the information search process of adolescent students. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(7), 1332–1344. doi: 10.1002/asi.21334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Boyle, G. J. (1989). Breadth-depth or state-trait curiosity? A factor analysis of state-trait curiosity and state anxiety scales. Personality and Individual Differences, 10, 175–183. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(89)90201-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Boyle, G. J., Richards, L. M., & Baglioni, A. J., Jr. (1993). Children’s motivation analysis tests (CMAT): an experimental manipulation of curiosity and boredom. Personality and Individual Differences, 15, 637–643. doi: 10.1016/0191-8869(93)90005-N.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Braun, H. I., & Mislevy, R. (2005). Intuitive test theory. Phi Delta Kappan, 86, 488–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Byman, R. (1993). From two-dimensional to three-dimensional curiosity: a reanalysis of depth-breadth-factor model. Australian Journal of Psychology, 45(3), 155–160. doi: 10.1080/00049539308259133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. *Byman, R. (2005). Curiosity and sensation seeking: a conceptual and empirical investigation. Personality and Individual Differences, 38, 1365–1379. doi:  10.1016/j.paid.2004.09.004.
  31. Camp, C. J., Rodrigue, J. R., & Olson, K. R. (1984). Curiosity in young, middle-aged, and older adults. Educational Gerontology, 10, 387–400. doi: 10.1080/0380127840100504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. *Čavojová, V., & Sollár, T. (2007). The curiosity and exploration inventory: structure and reliability. Studia Psychologica, 49(1), 89100.Google Scholar
  33. Chak, A. (2007). Teachers’ and parents’ conceptions of children’s curiosity and exploration. International Journal of Early Years Education, 15, 141–159. doi: 10.1080/09669760701288690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Connelly, D. A. (2011). Applying Silvia’s model of interest to academic text: is there a third appraisal? Learning and Individual Differences, 21, 624–628. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2011.04.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cooper, H. M. (1982). Scientific guidelines for conducting integrative research reviews. Review of Educational Research, 52(2), 291–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Day, H. Y. (1968). Role of specific curiosity in school achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 59, 37–43. doi: 10.1037/h0025460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Day, H. I. (1971). The measurement of specific curiosity. In H. I. Day, D. E. Berlyne, & D. E. Hunt (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation: a new direction in education. New York: Hold, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  38. Dewey, J. (1910). How we think. New York: Heath.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dickey, M. D. (2011). Murder on Grimm Isle: the impact of game narrative design in an educational game-based learning environment. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42, 456–469. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01032.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dinsmore, D. L., Alexander, P. A., & Loughlin, S. M. (2008). Focusing the conceptual lens of metacognition, self-regulation, and self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 20, 391–409. doi: 10.1007/sl0648-008-9083-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Engel, S., & Randall, K. (2009). How teachers respond to children’s inquiry. American Educational Research Journal, 46, 183–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Engelhard, G., Jr., & Monsaas, J. A. (1988). Grade level, gender, and school-related curiosity in urban elementary schools. The Journal of Educational Research, 82(1), 22–26. doi: 10.3102/0002831208323274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fink, A. (2005). Conducting research literature reviews: from the Internet to paper. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  44. Gallagher, M. W., & Lopez, S. J. (2007). Curiosity and well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(4), 236–248. doi: 10.1080/17439760701552345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Garnier-Dykstra, L. M., Caldeira, K. M., Vincent, K. B., O’Grady, K. E., & Arria, A. (2012). Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants during college: four-year trends in exposure opportunity, use, motives, and sources. Journal of American College Health, 60, 226–234. doi: 10.1080/07448481.2011.589876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Giambra, L. M., Camp, C. J., & Grodinsky, A. (1992). Curiosity and stimulation seeking across the adult life span: Cross-sectional and 6- to 8-year longitudinal findings. Psychology and Aging, 7(1), 150–157. do: 10.1037/0882-7974.7.1.150.
  47. Gilmore, L., & Cuskelly, M. (2011). Observational assessment and maternal reports of motivation in children and adolescents with Down Syndrome. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 116(2), 153–164. doi: 10.1352/1944-7558-116.2.153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ginsburg, H., & Opper, S. (1988). Piaget’s theory of intellectual development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  49. Gold, S. R., & Henderson, B. B. (1990). Daydreaming and curiosity: stability and change in gifted children and adolescents. Adolescence, 25, 701–708.Google Scholar
  50. Hambrick, D. Z., Pink, J. E., Meinz, E. J., Pettibone, J. C., & Oswald, F. L. (2008). The roles of ability, personality, and interests in acquiring current events knowledge: a longitudinal study. Intelligence, 36, 261–278. doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2007.06.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hart, C. (1998). Doing a literature review: releasing the social science research imagination. Los Angeles: Sage.Google Scholar
  52. Harter, S., & Zigler, E. (1974). The assessment of effectance motivation in normal and retarded children. Developmental Psychology, 10, 169–180. doi: 10.1037/h0036049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hidi, S. (1990). Interest and its contribution as a mental resource for learning. Review of Educational Research, 60, 549–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hidi, S. (1995). A re-examination of the role of attention in learning from text. Educational Psychology Review, 7, 323–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hidi, S. (2000). An interest researcher’s perspective on the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on motivation. In C. Sansone & J. M. Harackiewicz (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation: controversies and new directions (pp. 309–339). New York: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hidi, S. (2006). Interest: a unique motivational variable. Educational Research Review, 1, 69–82. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2006.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hidi, S., & Renninger, K. A. (2006). The four-phase model of interest development. Educational Psychologist, 42, 111–127. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep4102_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hulleman, C. S., Durik, A. M., Schweigert, S. A., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2008). Task values, achievement goals, and interest: an integrative analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 398–416. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.100.2.398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Iran-Nejad, A. (1990). Active and dynamic self-regulation of learning processes. Review of Educational Research, 60, 573–602. doi: 10.3102/00346543060004573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Iran-Nejad, A., & Cecil, C. (1992). Interest and learning: a biofunctional perspective. In K. A. Renninger, S. Hidi, & A. Krapp (Eds.), The role of interest in learning and development (pp. 297–332). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  61. Iran-Nejad, A., & Chissom, B. S. (1992). Contributions of active and dynamic self-regulation to learning. Innovative Higher Education, 17, 125–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Izard, C. E. (1977). Human emotions. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. James, W. (1890/1950). The principles of psychology (vol. 2). New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  64. Jirout, J., & Klahr, D. (2012). Children’s scientific curiosity: in search of an operational definition of an elusive construct. Developmental Review, 32, 125–160. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2012.04.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kang, M. J., Hsu, M., Krajbich, I. M., Loewenstein, G., McClure, S. M., Wang, J. T.-Y., & Camerer, C. F. (2009). The wick in the candle of learning: epistemic curiosity activates reward circuitry and enhances memory. Psychological Science, 20, 963–973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kashdan, T. B. (2004). Curiosity. In C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Character strengths and virtues: a handbook and classification (pp. 125–141). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Kashdan, T. B., Afram, A., Brown, K. W., Birnbeck, M., & Drvoshanov, M. (2011). Curiosity enhances the role of mindfulness in reducing defensive responses to existential threat. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 1227–1232. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.02.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kashdan, T. B., Gallagher, M. W., Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Breen, W. E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M. F. (2009). The curiosity and exploration inventory—II: development, factor structure, and psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 987–998. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2009.04.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kashdan, T. B., & Roberts, J. E. (2004). Trait and state curiosity in the genesis of intimacy: differentiation from related constructs. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 32, 792–816. doi: 10.1521/jscp.23.6.792.54800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kashdan, T. B., Rose, P., & Fincham, F. D. (2004). Curiosity and exploration: facilitating positive subjective experiences and personal growth opportunities. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82, 291–305. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa8203_05.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. *Kashdan, T. B., & Yuen, M. (2007). Whether highly curious students thrive academically depends on perceptions about the school learning environment: a study of Hong Kong students. Motivation and Emotion, 31, 260270. doi:  10.1007/s11031-007-9074-9.
  72. Kjærnsli, M., & Lie, S. (2011). Students’ preference for science careers: international comparisons based on PISA 2006. International Journal of Science Education, 33, 121–144. doi: 10.1080/09500693.2010.518642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Knobloch, S., Patzig, G., Mende, A.-M., & Hastall, M. (2004). Effects of discourse structure in narratives on suspense, curiosity, and enjoyment while reading news and novels. Communication Research, 31(3), 259–287. doi: 10.1177/0093650203261517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Koo, D.-M., & Choi, Y.-Y. (2010). Knowledge search and people with high epistemic curiosity. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 12–22. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2009.08.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Krapp, A. (2002). Structural and dynamic aspects of interest development: theoretical considerations from an ontogenetic perspective. Learning and Instruction, 12, 383–409. doi: 10.1016/S0959-4752(01)00011-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Krapp, A. (2005). Basic needs and the development of interest and intrinsic-motivational orientations. Learning and Instruction, 15, 381–395. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2005.07.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Krapp, A. (2007). An educational-psychological conceptualisation of interest. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 7, 5–21. doi: 10.1007/s10775-007-9113-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Langevin, R. (1971). Is curiosity a unitary construct? Canadian Journal of Psychology, 25, 360–374. doi: 10.1037/h0082397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lehman, S., Schraw, G., McCrudden, M. T., & Hartley, K. (2007). Processing and recall of seductive details in scientific text. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 32, 569–587. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2006.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Leonard, N. H., & Harvey, M. (2007). The trait of curiosity as a predictor of emotional intelligence. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 1914–1929. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00243.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Levitt, H. M., Williams, D. C., Uruk, A. C., Kannan, D., Obana, M., Smith, B. L., & Biss, W. J. (2009). The experience of depth curiosity: the pursuit of congruence despite the danger of engulfment. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 22, 187–212. doi: 10.1080/10720530902915093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. *Lin, D., Wong, K. K., & McBridge-Chang, C. (2012). Reading motivation and reading comprehension in Chinese and English among bilingual students. Reading and Writing, 25, 717737. doi:  10.1007/s11145-011-9297-8.
  83. Linnenbrink, E. A. (2006). Emotion research in education: theoretical and methodological perspectives on the integration of affect, motivation, and cognition. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 307–314. doi: 10.1007/s10648-006-9028-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Litman, J. A. (2005). Curiosity and the pleasures of learning: wanting and liking new information. Cognition & Emotion, 19(6), 793–814.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Litman, J. A. (2008). Interest and deprivation factors of epistemic curiosity. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1585–1595. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2008.01.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Litman, J. A. (2010). Relationships between measures of I- and D-type curiosity, ambiguity tolerance, and need for closure: an initial test of the wanting-liking model of information seeking. Personality and Individual Differences, 48, 397–410. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.11.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Litman, J. A., Collins, R. P., & Spielberger, C. D. (2005). The nature and measurement of sensory curiosity. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 1123–1133. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2005.05.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. *Litman, J. A., Crowson, H. M., & Kolinski, K. (2010). Validity of the interest- and deprivation type epistemic curiosity distinction in non-students. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 531536. doi:  10.1016/j.paid.2010.05.021
  89. *Litman, J. A., Hutchins, T. L., Russon, R. K. (2005). Epistemic curiosity, feeling-of-knowing and exploratory behaviour. Cognition and Emotion, 19(4), 559582. doi:  10.1080/0269993044100042.
  90. Litman, J. A., & Jimerson, T. L. (2004). The measurement of curiosity as a feeling of deprivation. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82, 147–157. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa8202_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Litman, J. A., & Pezzo, M. V. (2007). Dimensionality of interpersonal curiosity. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1448–1459. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.04.021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Litman, J. A., & Silvia, P. J. (2006). The latent structure of trait curiosity: evidence for interest and deprivation curiosity dimensions. Journal of Personality Assessment, 86(3), 318–328. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa8603_07.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Litman, J. A., & Spielberger, C. D. (2003). Measuring epistemic curiosity and its diversive and specific components. Journal of Personality Assessment, 80(1), 75–86. doi: 10.1207/S15327752JPA8001_16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Loewenstein, G. (1994). The psychology of curiosity. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 75–98. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.116.1.75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Lowry, N., & Johnson, D. W. (1981). Effects of controversy on epistemic curiosity, achievement, and attitudes. The Journal of Social Psychology, 115, 31–43. doi: 10.1080/00224545.1981.9711985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Maree, J. G. (2012). Career adapt-abilities scale—South African form: psychometric properties and construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 730–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Mascherek, A., & Zimprich, D. (2012). Stability and change in typical intellectual engagement in old age across 5 years. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 67, 309–316. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbr101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Maw, W. H., & Maw, E. W. (1961). Information recognition by children of high and low curiosity. Educational Research Bulletin, 40(80), 197–201.Google Scholar
  99. Maw, W. H., & Maw, E. W. (1966). Children’s curiosity and parental attitudes. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 28, 343–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Maw, W. H., & Maw, E. W. (1972). Differences between high- and low-curiosity fifth-grade children in their recognition of verbal absurdities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 63, 558–562. doi: 10.1037/h0034075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. McCrea, R. R., & Costa, P. T., Jr. (1997). Conceptions and correlates to openness to experience. In R. Hogan, J. A. Johnson, & S. R. Briggs (Eds.), Handbook of personality psychology (pp. 826–848). San Diego: Academic.Google Scholar
  102. McMahon, M., Watson, M., & Bimrose, J. (2012). Career adaptability: a qualitative understanding from the stories of older women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 762–768. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2012.01.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Menon, S., & Soman, D. (2002). Managing the power of curiosity for effective web advertising strategies. Journal of Advertising, 31, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2012). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.Google Scholar
  105. Moore, S. G., & Bulbulian, K. N. (1976). The effects of contrasting styles of adult-child interaction on children’s curiosity. Developmental Psychology, 12, 171–172. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.12.2.171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Murphy, P. K. (1998). Toward a multifaceted model of persuasion: exploring textual and learning interactions. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, MD.Google Scholar
  107. Mussel, P. (2010). Epistemic curiosity and related constructs: lacking evidence of discriminant validity. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 506–510. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.05.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mussel, P., Winter, C., Gelléri, P., & Schuller, H. (2011). Explicating the openness to experience construct and its subdimensions and facets in a work setting. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 19, 145–156. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2389.2011.00542.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Naylor, F. D. (1981). A state-trait curiosity inventory. Australian Psychologist, 16, 172–183. doi: 10.1080/00050068108255893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Neblett, E. W., Jr., Philip, C. L., Cogburn, C. D., & Sellers, R. M. (2006). African-American adolescents’ discrimination experiences and academic achievement: racial socialization as a cultural compensatory and protective factor. Journal of Black Psychology, 32, 199–218. doi: 10.1177/0095798406287072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Olson, K. R., & Camp, C. J. (1984). Factor analysis of curiosity measures in adults. Psychological Reports, 54, 492–497. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1984.54.2.491.Google Scholar
  112. Pearson, P. H. (1970). Relationships between global and specified measures of novelty seeking. Journal of Counsulting and Clinical Psychology, 34, 199–204. doi: 10.1037/h0029010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Peters, R. A. (1978). Effects of anxiety, curiosity, and perceived instructor threat on student verbal behavior in the college classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 70(3), 388–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Assessment and applications. In C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Character strengths and virtues: a handbook and classification (pp. 625–644). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Pierce, J. P., Distefan, J. M., Kaplan, R. M., & Gilpin, E. A. (2005). The role of curiosity in smoking initiation. Addictive Behaviors, 30, 685–696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Reio, T. G., Jr., & Callahan, J. L. (2004). Affect, curiosity, and socialization-related learning: a path analysis of antecedents to job performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 19, 3–22. doi: 10.1023/B:JOBU.0000040269.72795.ce.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Reio, T. G., Jr., Petrosko, J. M., Wiswell, A. K., & Thongsukmag, J. (2006). The measurement and conceptualization of curiosity. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 167, 117–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Reio, T. G., Jr., & Wiswell, A. (2000). Field investigation of the relationship among adult curiosity, workplace learning, and job performance. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 11, 5–30. doi: 10.1002/1532-1096(200021)11:1<5::AID-HRDQ2>3.0.CO;2-A.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Renner, B. (2006). Curiosity about people: the development of a social curiosity measure in adults. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87(3), 305–316. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa8703_11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Renninger, K. A. (2000). Individual interest and its implications for understanding intrinsic motivation. In C. Sansone & J. M. Harackiwiecz (Eds.), Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: the search for optimal motivation and performance (pp. 373–404). San Diego: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Renninger, K. A., Ewen, L., & Lasher, A. K. (2002). Individual interest as context in expository text and mathematical word problems. Learning and Instruction, 12, 467–490. doi: 10.1016/S0959-4752(01)00012-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Reeve, J. (1989). The interest-enjoyment distinction in intrinsic motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 13, 83–103. doi: 10.1007/BF00992956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Rosenberg, E. L. (1998). Levels of analysis and the organization of affect. Review of General Psychology, 2, 247–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Russell, J. A. (2003). Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion. Psychological Review, 110, 145–172. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.110.1.145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Schiefele, U. (2009). Situational and individual interest. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 197–222). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  126. Schiefele, U., Krapp, A., Wild, K.-P., & Winteler, A. (1993). Der “Fragebogen zum Studieninteresse” (FSI) [The Study Interest Questionnaire]. Diagnustica, 39, 335–351.Google Scholar
  127. Schmitt, F. F., & Lahroodi, R. (2008). The epistemic value of curiosity. Educational Theory, 58, 125–148. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-5446.2008.00281.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Schraw, G., & Lehman, S. (2001). Situational interest: a review of the literature and directions for future research. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 23–52. doi: 10.1023/A:1009004801455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Silvia, P. J. (2005). What is interesting? Exploring the appraisal structure of interest. Emotion, 5, 89–102. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.5.1.89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Silvia, P. J. (2006). Exploring the psychology of interest. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Silvia, P. J. (2008). Appraisal components and emotion traits: examining the appraisal basis of trait curiosity. Cognition and Emotion, 22, 94–113. doi: 10.1080/02699930701298481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Silvia, P. J., Henson, R. A., & Templin, J. L. (2009). Are the sources of interest the same for everyone? Using multilevel mixture models to explore individual differences in appraisal structures. Cognition and Emotion, 23, 1389–1406. doi: 10.1080/02699930902850528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Silvia, P. J., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Interesting things and curious people: exploration and engagement as transient states and enduring strengths. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3, 785–797. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2009.00210.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Smalls, C., White, R., Chavous, T., & Sellers, R. (2007). Racial ideological beliefs and racial discrimination experiences as predictors of academic engagement among African American adolescents. Journal of Black Psychology, 33, 299–330. doi: 10.1177/0095798407302541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Spielberger, C. D. (1979). Preliminary manual for the State–Trait Personality Inventory. Unpublished manual, University of South Florida.Google Scholar
  136. Spielberger, C. D., & Starr, L. M. (1994). Curiosity and exploratory behavior. In H. F. O’Neil Jr. & M. Drillings (Eds.), Motivation theory and research (pp. 221–243). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  137. Subbotsky, E. (2010). Curiosity and exploratory behavior towards possible and impossible events in children and adults. British Journal of Psychology, 101, 481–501. doi: 10.1348/000712609X470590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Swan, G. E., & Carmelli, D. (1996). Curiosity and mortality in aging adults: a 5-year follow-up of the western collaborative group study. Psychology and Aging, 11, 449–453. doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.11.3.449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Vidler, D. C., & Rawan, H. R. (1974). Construct validation of a scale of academic curiosity. Psychological Reports, 35, 263–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Villiger, C., Niggli, A., Wanderler, C., & Kutzelmann, S. (2012). Does family make a difference? Mid-term effects of a school/home-based intervention program to engage reading motivation. Learning and Instruction, 22, 79–91. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.07.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. von Stumm, S., & Deary, I. J. (2011). Typical intellectual engagement and cognition in the ninth decade of life: the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921. Psychology and Aging, 27, 761–767. doi: 10.1037/a0026527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Wade, S. E., Schraw, G., Buxton, W. M., & Hayes, M. T. (1993). Seduction of the strategic reader: effects of interest on strategies and recall. Reading Research Quarterly, 28, 93–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Wavo, E.-Y.-T. (2004). Honesty, cooperation, and curiosity achievement of some schools on Nanjing (China). IFE PsychologIA, 12, 178–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. White, H. D. (2009). Scientific communication and literature retrieval. In H. M. Cooper, L. V. Hedges, and J. C. Valentine (Eds.), The Handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis (2nd ed., pp. 51–72). New York: Russell Sage Publications. Retrieved from
  145. Woods-Groves, S., Eaves, R. C., & Williams, T. O., Jr. (2009). Internal consistency of the human behavior rating scale. Psychological Reports, 105, 835–848. doi: 10.2466/pr0.105.3.835-848.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Yang, H.-J., & Lay, Y.-L. (2011). Affecting factors and outcome on intermittent internet pulling behavior in Taiwan’s undergraduate students. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 45, 339–357. doi: 10.2190/EC.45.3.e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Zisimopoulos, D. A., & Galanaki, E. P. (2009). Academic intrinsic motivation and perceived academic competence in Greek elementary students with and without learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 24, 33–43. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5826.2008.01275.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking: beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Human Development and Quantitative MethodologyUniversity of MarylandMarylandUSA

Personalised recommendations