Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 69–94 | Cite as

A Meta-Analysis on Gender Differences in Mental Rotation Ability Measured by the Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (PSVT:R)

  • Yukiko MaedaEmail author
  • So Yoon Yoon
Review Article


This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the magnitude of gender difference in three-dimensional (3-D) mental rotation ability and to investigate how factors related to test administration conditions play a role in varying gender difference effect sizes and threatening validity. Individuals’ 3-D mental rotation ability was measured by the Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (PSVT:R). We integrated 70 effect sizes of gender differences in mental rotation ability measured by the PSVT:R which were obtained from 40 primary studies. The results indicated that male participants outperformed females on the test (Hedges’ g = 0.57). The I 2 statistic indicated 41.7 % of variation in effect sizes reflects real heterogeneity. The moderator analysis indicated that male superiority on spatial ability tasks measured by the PSVT:R is related to the implementation of time limits. The gender difference became larger when stringent time limits (equal or less than 30 s per item) were implemented.


Meta-analysis Gender difference Spatial ability Mental rotation The PSVT:R 


References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis. The in-text citations to studies selected for meta-analysis are not preceded by asterisks.

  1. Alkhateeb, H. M. (2004). Spatial visualization of undergraduate education majors classified by thinking styles. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 98, 865–868. doi: 10.2466/PMS.98.3.865-868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Educational Research Association (AERA), American Psychological Association (APA), and National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME). (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, NW: American Educational Research Association.Google Scholar
  3. Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological testing (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  4. *Battista, M. T. (1980). Interrelationships between problem solving ability, right hemisphere processing facility and mathematics learning. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 2, 53–60.Google Scholar
  5. *Battista, M. T. (1990). Spatial visualization and gender differences in high school geometry. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21, 47-60. doi: 10.2307/749456.Google Scholar
  6. Battista, M. T., Wheatley, G. H., & Talsma, G. (1982). The importance of spatial visualization and cognitive development for geometry learning in pre-service elementary teachers. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 13, 332–340. doi: 10.2307/749007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennett, G. K., Seashore, H. G., & Wesman, A. G. (1973). Differential aptitude tests. New York, NY: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  8. *Black, A. A. (2005). Spatial ability and earth science conceptual understanding. Journal of Geoscience Education, 53, 402-414. Retrieved from
  9. *Bock, A. M. (2005). Gaze duration estimates and eye movements related to mental rotation tasks. Unpublished master’s thesis. The University of Iowa, Iowa.Google Scholar
  10. Bodner, G. M., & Guay, R. B. (1997). The Purdue visualization of rotations test. The Chemical Educator, 2(4), 1–18. doi: 10.1333/s00897970138a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boles, D. B. (1980). X-linkage of spatial ability: a critical review. Child Development, 51, 625–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Borenstein, M. (2009). Effect sizes for continuous data. In H. Cooper, L. V. Hedges, & J. C. Valentine (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis (2nd ed., pp. 221–235). New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
  13. *Branoff, T. J. (1998). The effects of adding coordinate axes to a mental rotations task in measuring spatial visualization ability: an information processing approach relating to teaching methods of undergraduate technical graphics education. Dissertation Abstracts International, 59(03), 709A. (UMI Number: 9825977).Google Scholar
  14. *Branoff, T. J. (1999). Coordinate axes and mental rotation tasks: a Solomon four group design. Engineering Design Graphics Journal, 63(3), 5–14.Google Scholar
  15. *Branoff, T. J. (2000). Spatial visualization measurement: a modification of the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test—Visualization of Rotations. Engineering Design Graphics Journal, 64(2), 14–22.Google Scholar
  16. *Branoff, T. J., Connolly, P. E. (1999, June). The addition of coordinate axes to the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test—Visualization of Rotations: a study at two universities. Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual conference and expositions, Charlotte, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  17. *Brownlow, S., McPheron, T. K. Acks, C. N. (2003). Science background and spatial abilities in men and women. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 12, 371-380.  10.1023/B:JOST.0000006297.90536.7c.
  18. *Brownlow, S., Janas, A. J., Blake, K. A., Rebadow, K. T., Mello, L. M. (2011). Getting by with a little help from my friends: mental rotation ability after tacit peer encouragement. Psychology, 2, 363-370.  10.4236/psych.2011.24057.
  19. *Brus, C., Zhao, L., Jessop, J. (2004, June). Visual–spatial ability in first-year engineering students: a useful retention variable? Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual Conference and Expositions, Salt Lake City, Utah.Google Scholar
  20. Caplan, P. J., MacPherson, G. M., & Tobin, P. (1985). Do sex-related differences in spatial abilities exist? A multilevel critique with new data. American Psychologist, 40, 789–799. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.40.7.786.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carroll, J. B. (1993). Human cognitive abilities: a survey of factor-analytic studies. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. *Chae, Y., Chae, S., Mann, R. L. (2008, November). Gifted Spatial Learners: Class selection and Gender. Poster session presented at the Research Gala of Research and Evaluation Division at the 55th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children in Tampa, Florida.Google Scholar
  23. Cherney, I. D. (2008). Mom, let me play more computer games: they improve my mental rotation ability. Sex Roles, 59, 776–786. doi: 10.1007/s11199-008-9498-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  25. College Entrance Examination Board. (1939). CEEB Special Aptitude Test in spatial relations. New York, NY: College Entrance Examination Board.Google Scholar
  26. *Connolly, P., Harris, L. V. A., Sadowski, M. (2009, June). Measuring and enhancing spatial visualization in engineering technology students. Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual conference and expositions, Austin, Texas.Google Scholar
  27. Contero, M., Naya, F., Company, P., Saorin, J. L., & Conesa, J. (2005). Improving visualization skills in engineering education. Computer Graphics in Education, 25(5), 24–31.Google Scholar
  28. Cooke-Simpson, A., & Voyer, D. (2007). Confidence and gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test. Learning and Individual Differences, 17, 181–186. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2007.03.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. *Dean, D. H. (2009). Spatial visualization and the gender gap in videogame interest among young adults. Young Consumers: Insight and Ideas for Responsible Marketers, 10, 225–237.Google Scholar
  30. Deno, J. (1995). The relationship of previous experiences to spatial visualization ability. Engineering Design Graphics Journal, 59, 5–17. doi: 10.1108/17473610910986035.Google Scholar
  31. Educational Testing Service (2009). Educational Testing Service Test Collection. Retrieved from
  32. Eliot, J. (1987). Models of psychological space: psychometric, developmental, and experimental approaches. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. *Eraso, M. (2007). Connecting visual and analytic reasoning to improve students’ spatial visualization abilities: A constructivist approach. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Florida International University, Florida.Google Scholar
  34. *Ernst, J. V., Clark, A. C. (2009). Technology-based content through virtual and physical modeling: a national research study. Journal of Technology Education, 20(2), 23–36.Google Scholar
  35. Feng, J., Spence, I., & Pratt, J. (2007). Playing an action video game reduces gender differences in spatial cognition. Psychological Science, 18, 850–855. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01990.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Field, B. W. (2007). Visualization, intuition, and mathematics metrics as predictors of undergraduate engineering design performance. Journal of Mechanical Design, 129, 735–743. doi: 10.1115/1.2722790_.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Geiser, C., Lehmann, W., & Eid, M. (2006). Separating “rotators” from “non-rotators” in the Mental Rotations Test: a multigroup latent class analysis. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 41, 261–293. doi: 10.1207/s15327906mbr4103_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Geiser, C., Lehmann, W., & Eid, M. (2008). A note on sex differences in mental rotation in different age groups. Intelligence, 36, 556–563. doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2007.12.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ginn, S. R., & Pickens, S. J. (2005). Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 100, 877–881. doi: 10.2466/PMS.100.3.877-881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Goldstein, D., Haldane, D., & Mitchell, C. (1990). Sex differences in visual-spatial ability: the role of performance factors. Memory & Cognition, 18, 546–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gohm, C. L., Humphreys, L. G., & Yao, G. (1998). Underachievement among spatially gifted students. American Educational Research Journal, 35, 515–531.Google Scholar
  42. *Grabow, R. (2003). The relationship of visual spatial ability to performance in solving stoichiometric problems in a high school chemistry class. Unpublished masters’ thesis, California State University, California.Google Scholar
  43. Guay, R. B. (1976). Purdue spatial visualization test. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue Research Foundation.Google Scholar
  44. *Guay, R. B. (1978). Factors affecting spatial test performance: Sex, handedness, birth order, and experience. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Toronto, CA (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED167612).Google Scholar
  45. Guay, R. B. (1980). Spatial ability measurement: a critique and an alternative. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston, MA. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED189166).Google Scholar
  46. *Guay, R. B., McDaniel, E. (1978). Correlates of performance on spatial aptitude tests. (A final report on Grant No. DAHC 19-77-G-0019) Alexandria, VA: U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.Google Scholar
  47. Guay, R. B., McDaniel, E., & Angelo, S. (1978). Analytic factors confounding spatial ability measurement. Paper presented at the annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, CA. In R. B. Guay & E. McDaniel (Eds.), Correlates of performance on spatial aptitude tests. Alexandria, VA: U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences.Google Scholar
  48. *Hagevik, R. A., (2003). The effects of online science instruction using geographic information systems to foster inquiry learning of teachers and middle school science students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 64(10), 3635A. (UMI Number: 3107767).Google Scholar
  49. *Hake, R. R. (2002). Relationship of individual student normalized learning gains in Mechanics with gender, high-school physics, and pretest scores on mathematics and spatial visualization. Poster session presented at the Physics Education Research Conference (PERC), Boise, Idaho.Google Scholar
  50. Haladyna, T. M., & Downing, S. M. (2004). Construct-irrelevant variance in high-stakes testing. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 23, 17–27. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3992.2004.tb00149.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Harris, L. J. (1978). Sex differences in spatial ability: Possible environmental, genetic, and neurological factors. In M. Kinsbourne (Ed.), Asymmetrical function of the brain (pp. 405–522). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. *Harris, M. A., Peck, R. P., Colton, S., Morris, J., Neto, E. C., Kallio, J. (2009). A combination of hand-held models and computer imaging programs helps students answer oral questions about molecular structure and function: A controlled investigation of student learning. CBE Life Sciences Education, 8, 29-43.  10.1187/cbe.08-07-0039.
  53. *Hassan, M. M., Abed, A. S. (1999). Differences in spatial visualization as a function of scores on hemisphericity of mathematics teachers. Perceptual and motor skills, 88, 387-390.  10.2466/PMS.88.2.387-390.
  54. Hausmann, M., Slabbekoorn, D., Van Goozen, S. H. M., Cohen-Kettenis, P. T., & Güntürkün, O. (2000). Sex hormones affect spatial abilities during the menstrual cycle. Behavioral Neuroscience, 114, 1245–1250. doi: 10.1037/0735-7044.114.6.1245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hedges, L. V. (1981). Distribution theory for Glass’s estimator of effect size and related estimators. Journal of Educational Statistics, 6, 107–128. doi: 10.3102/10769986006002107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hedges, L. V., & Nowell, A. (1995). Sex differences in mental test scores, variability, and numbers of high scoring individuals. Science, 269, 41–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hedges, L. V., & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical model of meta-analysis. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  58. Higgins, J., Thompson, S. G., Deeks, J. J., & Altman, D. G. (2003). Measuring inconsistency in meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 327, 557–560. doi: 10.1136/bmj.327.7414.557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hirnstein, M., Bayer, U., & Hausmann, M. (2009). Sex-specific response strategies in mental rotation. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 225–228. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2008.11.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Höffler, T. N. (2010). Spatial ability: Its influence on learning with visualizations—a meta-analytic review. Educational Psychology Review, 245–269. doi: 10.1007/s10648-010-9126-7.
  61. Huff, K. L., & Sireci, S. G. (2001). Validity issues in computer-based testing. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 20(3), 16–25. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3992.2001.tb00066.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Humphreys, L. G., Lubinski, D., & Yao, G. (1993). Utility of predicting group membership and the role of spatial visualization in becoming an engineer, physical scientist, or artist. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 250–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jordan, K., Wüstenberg, T., Heinze, H.-J., Peters, M., & Jäncke, L. (2002). Women and men exhibit different cortical activation patterns during mental rotation tasks. Neuropsychologia, 40, 2397–2408. doi: 10.1016/S0028-3932(02), 00076-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1985). Cognitive coordinate systems: accounts of mental rotation and individual differences in spatial ability. Psychological Review, 92, 137–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. *Koch, D. S. (2006). The effects of solid modeling and visualization on technical problem solving. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, The Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia.Google Scholar
  66. Koscik, T., O’Leary, D., Moser, D. J., Andreasen, N. C., & Nopoulos, P. (2009). Sex differences in parietal lobe morphology: relationship to mental rotation performance. Brain and Cognition, 69, 451–459. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2008.09.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. *Kovac, R. J. Rensselaer, B. (1989). The validation of selected spatial ability tests via correlational assessment and analysis of user-processing strategy. Educational Research Quarterly, 13(2), 26–35.Google Scholar
  68. *Lindsay, H. A. (2001). Factors related to achievement in sophomore organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas, Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Arkansas.Google Scholar
  69. Linn, M. C., & Petersen, A. C. (1985). Emergence and characterization of sex differences in spatial ability: a meta-analysis. Child Development, 56, 1479–1498. doi: 10.2307/1130467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lipsey, M. W. (2009). Identifying interesting variables and analysis opportunities. In H. Cooper, L. V. Hedges, & J. C. Valentine (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis (2nd ed., pp. 147–158). New York: Sage.Google Scholar
  71. Lu, Y., & Sireci, S. G. (2007). Validity issues in test speededness. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 26(4), 29–37. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-3992.2007.00106.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lohman, D. F. (1996). Spatial ability and G. In I. Dennis & P. Tapsfield (Eds.), Human abilities: their nature and measurement (pp. 97–116). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  73. Lubinski, D. (2010). Spatial ability and STEM: a sleeping giant for talent identification and development. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 344–351. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. *Maeda, Y., Yoon, S. Y. (2011). Scaling the Revised PSVT-R: Characteristics of the first year engineering students’ spatial ability. Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual Conference and Exposition, 2011-2582, Vancouver, BC, Canada.Google Scholar
  75. Masters, M. S. (1998). The gender difference on the Mental Rotations Test is not due to performance factors. Memory & Cognition, 26, 444–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McCallin, R. C. (2006). Test administration. In S. M. Downing & T. M. Haladyna (Eds.), Handbook of test development (pp. 625–652). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  77. Messick, S. (1984). The psychology of educational measurement. Journal of Educational Measurement, 21, 215–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Moè, A. (2009). Are males always better than females in mental rotation? Exploring a gender belief explanation. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 21–27. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2008.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Moè, A., & Pazzaglia, F. (2006). Following the instructions: effects of gender beliefs in mental rotation. Learning and Individual Differences, 16, 369–377. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2007.01.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Monahan, J. S., Harke, M. A., & Shelley, J. R. (2008). Computerizing the Mental Rotations Test: are gender differences maintained? Behavior Research Methods, 40, 422–427. doi: 10.3758/BRM.40.2.422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Morris, S. B., & DeShon, R. P. (2002). Combining effect size estimates in meta-analysis with repeated measures and independent-groups designs. Psychological Methods, 7, 105–125. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.7.1.105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Moses, B. E. (1977). The nature of spatial ability and its relationship to mathematical problem-solving. Indiana University, IN: Unpublished doctoral dissertation.Google Scholar
  83. Netemeyer, R. G., Bearden, W. O., & Sharma, S. (2003). Scaling procedures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  84. Ortner, T. M., & Sieverding, M. (2008). Where are the gender differences? Male priming boosts spatial skills in women. Sex Roles, 59, 274–281. doi: 10.1007/s11199-008-9448-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. *Parolini, L. L. (1994). Gender differences on predictors of success on the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Rotations. Unpublished master’s thesis, Michigan Technological University, Michigan.Google Scholar
  86. Peters, M. (2005). Sex differences and the factor of time in solving Vandenberg and Kuse mental rotation problems. Brain and Cognition, 57, 176–184. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2004.08.052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Peters, M., Laeng, B., Lathan, K., Jackson, M., Zaiouna, R., & Richardson, C. (1995). A redrawn Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Test: different versions and factors that affect performance. Brain and Cognition, 28, 39–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. *Poulin, M., O’Connell, R. L., Freeman, L. M. (2004). Picture recall skills correlate with 2D:4D ratio in women but not men. Evolution and Human Behavior, 25, 174-181.  10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2004.03.004.
  89. *Provo, J. A. (1996). The effect of examination of a cross section on studentsability to visualize anatomy in three dimensions. Unpublished master’s thesis, Purdue University, Indiana.Google Scholar
  90. Quaiser-Pohl, C., Geiser, C., & Lehmann, W. (2006). The relationship between computer-game preference, gender, and mental-rotation ability. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 609–619. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2005.07.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. *Santone, A. (2009). Visuospatial characterization and analysis of spatial ability of video game players. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Purdue University, IN.Google Scholar
  92. *Schoenfeld-Tacher, R. M. (2000). Relation of student characteristics to learning of basic biochemistry concepts from a multimedia goal-based scenario. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado.Google Scholar
  93. Sharps, M. J., Price, J. L., & Williams, J. K. (1994). Spatial cognition and gender: instructional and stimulus influence on mental image rotation performance. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 413–425. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1994.tb00464.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Shea, D. L., Lubinski, D., & Benbow, C. P. (2001). Importance of assessing spatial ability in intellectually talented young adolescents: a 20-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 604–614. doi: 10.1037//0022-0663.93.3.604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shepard, R. N. (1978). Externalization of mental images and the act of creation. In B. S. Randhawa & W. E. Coffman (Eds.), Visual learning, thinking, and communication (pp. 133–190). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  96. Smith, I. M. (1964). Spatial ability: its educational and social significance. London: University of London Press.Google Scholar
  97. *Smith, M. E. (2009). The correlation between a pre-engineering student’s spatial ability and achievement in an electronics fundamentals course. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Utah State University, UT.Google Scholar
  98. Sorby, S. A. (2000). Spatial abilities and their relationship to effective learning of 3-D solid modeling software. Engineering Design Graphics Journal, 64(3), 30–35.Google Scholar
  99. Sorby, S. A. (2009). Educational research in developing 3-D spatial skills for engineering students. International Journal of Science Education, 31, 459–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sorby, S. A., & Baartmans, B. J. (1996). A course for the development of 3-D spatial visualization skills. Engineering Design Graphics Journal, 60(1), 13–20.Google Scholar
  101. Sorby, S. A., & Baartmans, B. J. (2000). The development and assessment of a course for enhancing the 3-D spatial visualization skills of first year engineering students. Journal of Engineering Education, 89, 301–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. *Sorby, S. A., Drummer, T., Hungwe, K., Parolini, L., Molzon, R. (2006a, July). Preparing for engineering studies: Improving the 3-D spatial skills of K-12 students. Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Engineering Education (ICEE), San Juan, Puerto Rico.Google Scholar
  103. *Sorby, S. A., Drummer, T., Molzon, R. (2006b). Experiences in using spatial skills testing instruments with younger audiences. Journal for Geometry and Graphics, 10, 227–235.Google Scholar
  104. Stieff, M. (2007). Mental rotation and diagrammatic reasoning in science. Learning and Instruction, 17, 219–234. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.01.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Strong, S., & Smith, R. (2001/2002). Spatial visualization: Fundamentals and trends in engineering graphics. Journal of Industrial Technology, 18, 1–6.Google Scholar
  106. Strube, M. J. (1987). A general model for estimating and correcting the effects of non-independence in meta-analysis. Multiple Linear Regression Viewpoints, 16, 40–47.Google Scholar
  107. *Stumpf, H., Eliot, J. (1995). Gender-related differences in spatial ability and the k factor of general spatial ability in a population of academically talented students. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 33–45.  10.1016/0191-8869(95)00029-6.
  108. *Titus, S., Horsman, E. (2009). Characterizing and improving spatial visualization skills. Journal of Geoscience Education, 57, 242–254.Google Scholar
  109. Titze, C., Heil, M., & Janse, P. (2008). Gender differences in the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) are not due to task complexity. Journal of Individual Differences, 29, 130–133. doi: 10.1027/1614-0001.29.3.130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Thomas, H., & Kail, R. (1991). Sex differences in speed of mental rotation and the X-linked genetic hypothesis. Intelligence, 15, 17–32. doi: 10.1016/0160-2896(91)90020-E.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Thomsen, T., Hugdahl, K., Ersland, L., Barndon, R., Lundervold, A., Smievoll, A. I., Roscher, B. E., & Sundberg, H. (2000). A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of sex differences in a mental rotation task. Medical Science Monitor, 6, 1186–1196.Google Scholar
  112. Vandenberg, S. G., & Kuse, A. R. (1978). Mental rotations: a group test of three-dimensional spatial visualization. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 47, 599–604. doi: 10.2466/PMS.47.6.599-604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Voyer, D., Rodgers, M., & McCormick, P. A. (2004). Timing conditions and the magnitude of gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test. Memory & Cognition, 32, 72–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Voyer, D., & Saunders, K. A. (2004). Gender differences on the mental rotations test: a factor analysis. Acta Psychologica, 117, 74–94. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2004.05.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Voyer, D., Voyer, S., & Bryden, M. P. (1995). Magnitude of sex differences in spatial abilities: a meta-analysis and consideration of critical variables. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 250–270. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.117.2.250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wai, J., Lubinski, D., & Benbow, C. P. (2009). Spatial ability for STEM domains: aligning over fifty years of cumulative psychological knowledge solidifies its importance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 817–835. doi: 10.1037/a0016127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wilson, D. B. (2009). Systematic coding. In H. Cooper, L. V. Hedges, & J. C. Valentine (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis and meta-analysis (2nd ed., pp. 159–176). New York: Sage.Google Scholar
  118. Wilkinson, L., & Task Force on Statistical Inference. (1999). Statistical methods in psychology journals: guidelines and explanations. American Psychologist, 54, 594–604. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.54.8.594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wood, J. A. (2008). Methodology for dealing with duplicate study effects in a meta-analysis. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 79–95. doi: 10.1177/1094428106296638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. *Yoon, S. Y. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Revised Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (The Revised PSVT:R) (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. (Order Number: 3480934).Google Scholar
  121. *Yue, J. (2002, June). Spatial visualization skills at various educational levels. Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual Conference and Expositions, Montréal, Quebec, Canada.Google Scholar
  122. Yue, J. (2004, June). Spatial visualization by orthogonal rotations. Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual Conference and Expositions, Salt Lake City, Utah.Google Scholar
  123. Yue, J. (2006, October). Spatial visualization by isometric drawing. Proceedings of the2006 IJME-INTERTECH Conference, Union, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  124. *Yue, J. Chen, D. M. (2001, June). Does CAD improve spatial visualization ability? Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual Conference and Expositions, Albuquerque, New Mexico.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational StudiesBeering Hall of Liberal Arts and Education, Purdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Institute for P-12 Engineering Research and Learning (INSPIRE)School of Engineering Education, Purdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

Personalised recommendations