Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 609–635 | Cite as

Stereotypes and the Achievement Gap: Stereotype Threat Prior to Test Taking

  • Markus AppelEmail author
  • Nicole Kronberger
Review Article


Stereotype threat is known as a situational predicament that prevents members of negatively stereotyped groups to perform up to their full ability. This review shows that the detrimental influence of stereotype threat goes beyond test taking: It impairs stereotyped students to build abilities in the first place. Guided by current theory on stereotype threat processes and boundary conditions, this review integrates findings on test taking, disidentification, and learning. A new three-stage account of stereotype threat is proposed that includes stereotype threat effects on both ability and performance. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.


Stereotype threat Achievement gap Gender Ethnicity Disidentification Learning 



The authors would like to thank Bernad Batinic for helpful comments and suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Education and PsychologyJohannes Kepler University of LinzLinzAustria

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