Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we suggest that these seemingly different strategies share important underlying characteristics and can be viewed as complimentary components of a broader approach to classroom instruction called transformational teaching. Transformational teaching involves creating dynamic relationships between teachers, students, and a shared body of knowledge to promote student learning and personal growth. From this perspective, instructors are intellectual coaches who create teams of students who collaborate with each other and with their teacher to master bodies of information. Teachers assume the traditional role of facilitating students’ acquisition of key course concepts, but do so while enhancing students’ personal development and attitudes toward learning. They accomplish these goals by establishing a shared vision for a course, providing modeling and mastery experiences, challenging and encouraging students, personalizing attention and feedback, creating experiential lessons that transcend the boundaries of the classroom, and promoting ample opportunities for preflection and reflection. We propose that these methods are synergistically related and, when used together, maximize students’ potential for intellectual and personal growth.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372.
Amador, J. A., Miles, L., & Peters, C. B. (2006). The practice of problem-based learning: A guide to implementing PBL in the college classroom. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Anding, J. M. (2005). An interview with Robert E. Quinn—Entering the fundamental state of leadership: Reflections on the path to transformational teaching. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4, 487–495.
Andrews, T. M., Leonard, M. J., Colgrove, C. A., & Kalinowski, S. T. (2011). Active learning not associated with student learning in a random sample of college biology courses. CBE Life Sciences Education, 10, 394–405.
Armbruster, P., Patel, M., Johnson, E., & Weiss, M. (2009). Active learning and student-centered pedagogy improve student attitudes and performance in introductory biology. CBE Life Sciences Education, 8, 203–213.
Armstrong, N., Chang, S. M., & Brickman, M. (2007). Cooperative learning in industrial-sized biology classes. CBE Life Sciences Education, 6, 163–171.
Aronson, E., & Patnoe, S. (1997). The jigsaw classroom: Building cooperation in the classroom (2nd ed.). New York: Addison Wesley Longman.
Ashton, P. T., & Webb, R. B. (1986). Teachers’ sense of efficacy, classroom behavior, and student achievement. In P. T. Ashton & R. B. Webb (Eds.), Teachers’ sense of efficacy and student achievement (pp. 125–144). New York: Longman.
Aspin, D. N., Chapman, J., Evans, K., & Bagnall, R. (Eds.). (2012). Second international handbook of lifelong learning. New York: Springer.
Attali, Y., & Powers, D. (2010). Immediate feedback and opportunity to revise answers to open-ended questions. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70, 22–35.
Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. M. (1995). Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the influence of transformational leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 6, 199–218.
Bailey, C. P., Minderhout, V., & Loertscher, J. (2012). Learning transferable skills in large lecture halls: Implementing a POGIL approach in biochemistry. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 40, 1–7.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117–148.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
Bandura, A. (2012a). On the functional properties of perceived self-efficacy revisited. Journal of Management, 38, 9–44.
Bandura, A. (2012b). Social cognitive theory. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, & E. T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology (pp. 349–374). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Bandura, A., & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 586–598.
Barkley, E. F., Cross, K. P., & Major, C. H. (2005). Collaborative learning techniques: A handbook for college faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Barling, J., Christie, A., & Hoption, C. (2010). Leadership. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 183–240). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Barrett, T. (2010). The problem-based learning process as finding and being in flow. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 47, 165–174.
Barrows, H. S. (1996). Problem-based learning in medicine and beyond: A brief overview. In L. Wilkerson & W. H. Gijselaers (Eds.), Bringing problem-based learning to higher education: Theory and practice (pp. 3–13). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Barry, C. L., Jeanne Horst, S., Finney, S. J., Brown, A. R., & Kopp, J. P. (2010). Do examinees have similar test-taking effort? A high-stakes question for low-stakes testing. International Journal of Testing, 10, 342–363.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1990). The implications of transactional and transformational leadership for individual, team, organizational development. Research in Organizational Change and Development, 4, 231–272.
Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, managerial applications. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2010). The transformational model of leadership. In G. Robinson Hickman (Ed.), Leading organizations: Perspectives for a new era (2nd ed., pp. 76–86). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Beard, C., & Wilson, J. P. (2006). Experiential learning: A best practice handbook for trainers and educators (2nd ed.). London: Kogan Page.
Beauchamp, M. R., Barling, J., Li, Z., Morton, K. L., Keith, S. E., & Zumbo, B. D. (2010). Development and psychometric properties of the transformational teaching questionnaire. Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 1123–1134.
Beauchamp, M. R., Barling, J., & Morton, K. L. (2011). Transformational teaching and adolescent self-determined motivation, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in leisure time physical activity: A randomised controlled pilot trial. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 3, 127–150.
Beauchamp, M. R., & Morton, K. L. (2011). Transformational teaching and physical activity engagement among adolescents. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 39, 133–139.
Benjamin, L. T., Jr. (2002). Lecturing. In S. F. Davis & W. Buskist (Eds.), The teaching of psychology: Essays in honor of Wilbert J. McKeachie and Charles L. Brewer (pp. 57–67). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Berk, R. A. (2009). Multimedia teaching with video clips: TV, movies, YouTube, and mtvU in the college classroom. International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning, 5, 1–21.
Berman, P., & McLaughlin, M. W. (1977). Federal programs supporting educational change. Vol. 7, Factors affecting implementation and continuation (R-1589/7-HEW). Santa Monica: Rand Corporation.
Blascovich, J., & Tomaka, J. (1996). The biopsychosocial model of arousal regulation. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 28, pp. 1–51). New York: Academic Press.
Boekaerts, M. (2002). Bringing about change in the classroom: Strengths and weaknesses of the self-regulated learning approach—EARLI Presidential Address, 2001. Learning and Instruction, 12, 589–604.
Bonwell, C. C., & Eison, J. A. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Boud, D., & Feletti, G. I. (Eds.). (1997). The challenge of problem-based learning (2nd ed.). London: Kogan Page.
Bouffard-Bouchard, T. (1990). Influence of self-efficacy on performance in a cognitive task. Journal of Social Psychology, 130, 353–363.
Bouffard-Bouchard, T., Parent, S., & Larivée, S. (1991). Influence of self-efficacy on self-regulation and performance among junior and senior high-school age students. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 14, 153–164.
Bower, G. H., & Gilligan, S. G. (1979). Remembering information related to one’s self. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 420–432.
Boyatzis, R. E. (2006a). An overview of intentional change from a complexity perspective. Journal of Management Development, 25, 607–623.
Boyatzis, R. E. (2006b). The ideal self as the driver of intentional change. Journal of Management Development, 25, 624–642.
Boyatzis, R. E. (2006c). Intentional change. Journal of Organizational Excellence, 25, 49–60.
Boyatzis, R. E. (2009). Creating sustainable, desired change in teams through the application of intentional change and complexity theories. In P. Doucherty, M. Kira, & A. B. Shani (Eds.), Creating sustainable work systems: Developing social sustainability (2nd ed., pp. 103–116). New York: Routledge.
Boyatzis, R. E., & Akrivou, K. (2006). The ideal self as the driver of intentional change. Journal of Management Development, 25, 624–642.
Boyd, B. L. (2009). Using a case study to develop the transformational teaching theory. Journal of Leadership Education, 7, 50–59.
Brandes, D., & Ginnis, P. (1986). A guide to student-centered learning. Oxford: Blackwell.
Britner, S. L., & Pajares, F. (2006). Sources of science self-efficacy beliefs of middle school students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43, 485–499.
Brock, S. E. (2010). Measuring the importance of precursor steps to transformative learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 60, 122–142.
Brown, J. K. (2008). Student-centered instruction: Involving students in their own education. Music Educators Journal, 94, 30–35.
Brown Wright, G. (2011). Student-centered learning in higher education. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 23, 92–97.
Bruner, J. S., & Haste, H. (Eds.). (2010). Making sense: The child’s construction of the world. New York: Routledge.
Buskist, W., & Davis, S. F. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of the teaching of psychology. Malden: Blackwell.
Caldwell, J. E. (2007). Clickers in the large classroom: Current research and best-practice tips. CBE Life Sciences Education, 6, 9–20.
Cantor, J. A. (1995). Experiential learning in higher education: Linking classroom and community. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caprara, G. V., Barbranelli, C., Steca, P., & Malone, P. S. (2006). Teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of job satisfaction and students’ academic achievement: A study at the school level. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 473–490.
Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., Alessandri, G., Gerbino, M., & Barbaranelli, C. (2011). The contribution of personality traits and self-efficacy beliefs to academic achievement: A longitudinal study. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 78–96.
Carrington, B., Tymms, P., & Merrell, C. (2008). Role models, school improvement and the ‘gender gap’—Do men bring out the best in boys and women the best in girls? British Educational Research Journal, 34, 315–327.
Cioffi, D. (1991). Beyond attentional strategies: A cognitive-perceptual model of somatic interpretation. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 25–41.
Clements, A. D. (1995). Experiential-learning activities in undergraduate developmental psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 22, 115–118.
Conciatore, J. (1990). From flunking to mastering calculus: Treisman’s retention model proves to be “too good” on some campuses. Black Issues in Higher Education, 6, 5–6.
Cooper, M. A. (1999). Classroom choices from a cognitive perspective on peer learning. In A. M. O’Donnell & A. King (Eds.), Cognitive perspectives on peer learning (pp. 215–234). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cortright, R. N., Collins, H. L., & DiCarlo, S. E. (2005). Peer instruction enhanced meaningful learning: Ability to solve novel problems. Advances in Physiology Education, 29, 107–111.
Cranton, P. (2006). Understanding and promoting transformative learning: A guide for educators of adults (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Crouch, C. H., & Mazur, E. (2001). Peer instruction: Ten years of experience and results. American Journal of Physics, 69, 970–977.
Dahlgren, D. J., Wille, D. E., Finkel, D. G., & Burger, T. (2005). Do active learning techniques enhance learning and increase persistence of first-year psychology students? Journal of The First-Year Experience & Students in Transition, 17, 49–65.
Deslauriers, L., Schelew, E., & Wieman, C. (2011). Improved learning in a large-enrollment physics class. Science, 332, 862–864.
Dirkx, J. M. (1998). Transformative learning theory in the practice of adult education: An overview. PAACE Journal of Lifelong Learning, 7, 1–14.
Draper, S. W., & Brown, M. I. (2004). Increasing interactivity in lectures using an electronic voting system. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 81–94.
Duch, B. J., Groh, S. E., & Allen, D. E. (Eds.). (2001). The power of problem-based learning. Sterling: Stylus.
Duncan, D. K., & Arthurs, L. (2012). Improving student attitudes about learning science and student scientific reasoning skills. Astronomy Education Review, 11, 010102.
Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York: Random House.
Dweck, C. S., & Master, A. (2009). Self-theories and motivation: Students’ beliefs about intelligence. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 123–140). New York: Routledge.
Erickson, D. M. (2007). A developmental re-forming of the phases of meaning in transformational learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 58, 61–80.
Estes, C. (2004). Promoting student-centered learning in experiential education. Journal of Experiential Education, 27, 141–161.
Fies, C., & Marshall, J. (2006). Classroom response systems: A review of the literature. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 15, 101–109.
Ford, N., Bowden, M., & Beard, J. (2011). Learning together: Using social media to foster collaboration in higher education. In L. A. Wankel & C. Wankel (Eds.), Higher education administration with social media (cutting-edge technologies in higher education, volume 2) (pp. 105–126). United Kingdom: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Freeman, S., O’Connor, E., Parks, J. W., Cunningham, M., Hurley, D., Haak, D., et al. (2007). Prescribed active learning increases performance in introductory biology. CBE Life Sciences Education, 6, 132–139.
Furnham, A., Batey, M., & Martin, N. (2011). How would you like to be evaluated? The correlates of students’ preferences for assessment methods. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 259–263.
Gaskill, P. J., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2002). Self-efficacy and self-regulated learning: The dynamic duo in school performance. In J. Aronson & D. Cordova (Eds.), Improving education: Classic and contemporary lessons from psychology (pp. 183–206). New York: Academic Press.
Gasser, K. W. (2011). Five ideas for 21st century math classrooms. American Secondary Education, 39, 108–116.
Gibson, S., & Dembo, M. H. (1984). Teacher efficacy: A construct validation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 569–582.
Giroux, H. (2010). Teachers as transformative intellectuals. In K. Ryan & J. M. Cooper (Eds.), Kaleidoscope: Contemporary and classic readings in education (pp. 35–40). Belmont: Wadsworth.
Gore, P. A., Jr. (2006). Academic self-efficacy as a predictor of college outcomes: Two incremental validity studies. Journal of Career Assessment, 14, 92–115.
Gross Davis, B. (2009). Tools for teaching (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Haak, D. C., HilleRisLambers, J., Pitre, E., & Freeman, S. (2011). Increased structure and active learning reduce the achievement gap in introductory biology. Science, 332, 1213–1216.
Hannafin, M. J., Hill, J. R., & Land, S. M. (1997). Student-centered learning and interactive multimedia: Status, issues, and implications. Contemporary Education, 68, 94–97.
Harcum, E. R., & Friedman, H. (1991). Students’ ethics ratings of demonstrations in introductory psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 18, 215–218.
Haynes, A. (2009). Student empowerment: Student-designed syllabus. In K. McKinney & B. S. Heyl (Eds.), Sociology through active learning: Student exercises (2nd ed., pp. 267–270). Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press.
Hebb, M. R., Brewer, C. L., & Benjamin, L. T., Jr. (2000). Handbook for teaching introductory psychology (2nd ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hermann, A. D., Foster, D. A., & Hardin, E. E. (2010). Does the first week of class matter? A quasi-experimental investigation of student satisfaction. Teaching of Psychology, 37, 79–84.
Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review, 16, 235–266.
Hoffman, B., & Ritchie, D. (1997). Using multimedia to overcome the problems with problem based learning. Instructional Science, 25, 97–115.
Holland, A. C., & Kensinger, E. A. (2010). Emotion and autobiographical memory. Physics of Life Reviews, 7, 88–131.
Hudd, S. S. (2003). Syllabus under construction: Involving students in the creation of class assignments. Teaching Sociology, 31, 195–202.
Isbell, L. M., & Gilbert Cote, N. (2009). Connecting with struggling students to improve performance in large classes. Teaching of Psychology, 36, 185–188.
James, A. N., Allison, S. B., & McKenzie, C. Z. (2011). Active lessons for active brains: Teaching boys and other experiential learners, grades 3–10. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Jensen, J. L., & Lawson, A. (2011). Effects of collaborative group composition and inquiry instruction on reasoning gains and achievement in undergraduate biology. CBE Life Sciences Education, 10, 64–73.
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1974). Instructional goal structure: Cooperative competitive or individualistic. Review of Education Research, 44, 213–240.
Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. A. (2006). Active learning: Cooperation in the college classroom (8th ed.). Edina: Interaction Book Company.
Kapitanoff, S. H. (2009). Collaborative testing: Cognitive and interpersonal processes related to enhanced test performance. Active Learning in Higher Education, 10, 56–70.
Karpiak, C. P. (2011). Assessment of problem-based learning in the undergraduate statistics course. Teaching of Psychology, 38, 251–254.
Kassam, K. S., Koslov, K., & Mendes, W. B. (2009). Decisions under distress: Stress profiles influence anchoring and adjustment. Psychological Science, 20, 1394–1399.
Kaufer, D., Gunawardena, A., Tan, A., & Cheek, A. (2011). Bringing social media to the writing classroom: Classroom salon. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 25, 299–321.
Kayes, A. B., Kayes, D. C., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Experiential learning in teams. Simulation and Gaming, 36, 330–354.
Keaton, S. A., & Bodie, G. D. (2011). Explaining social constructivism. Communication Teacher, 25, 192–196.
Kilic, A. (2010). Learner-centered micro teaching in teacher education. International Journal of Instruction, 3, 77–100.
Klassen, R. M. (2004). A cross-cultural investigation of the efficacy beliefs of South Asian immigrant and Anglo Canadian nonimmigrant early adolescents. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 731–742.
Klassen, R. M. (2010). Teacher stress: The mediating role of collective efficacy beliefs. The Journal of Educational Research, 103, 342–350.
Klassen, R. M., & Chiu, M. M. (2010). Effects on teachers’ self-efficacy and job satisfaction: Teacher gender, years of experience, and job stress. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102, 741–756.
Klassen, R. M., Tze, V. M. C., Betts, S. M., & Gordon, K. A. (2011). Teacher efficacy research 1998–2009: Signs of progress or unfulfilled promise? Educational Psychology Review, 23, 21–43.
Knight, J. K., & Wood, W. B. (2005). Teaching more by lecturing less. Cell Biology Education, 4, 298–310.
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Kolb, D. A., & Fry, R. (1975). Toward an applied theory of experiential learning. In C. Cooper (Ed.), Theories of group process. London: Wiley.
Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Learning styles and learning spaces: Enhancing experiential learning in higher education. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 4, 193–212.
Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2009). The learning way: Meta-cognitive aspects of experiential learning. Simulation and Gaming, 40, 297–327.
Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Schuh, J. H., & Whitt, E. J. (2010). Student success in college: Creating conditions that matter. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kuhn, J.-T., & Holling, H. (2009). Gender, reasoning ability, and scholastic achievement: A multilevel mediation analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 19, 229–233.
Lammers, W. J., & Murphy, J. J. (2002). A profile of teaching techniques used in the university classroom. Active Learning in Higher Education, 3, 54–76.
Lasry, N., Mazur, E., & Watkins, J. (2008). Peer instruction: From Harvard to the two-year college. American Journal of Physics, 76, 1066–1069.
Lebens, M., Graff, M., & Mayer, P. (2011). The affective dimensions of mathematical difficulties in schoolchildren. Education Research International, 2011, 1–13.
Lewis, J. S., & Harrison, M. A. (2012). Online delivery as a course adjunct promotes active learning and student success. Teaching of Psychology, 39, 72–76.
Loo, R. (2004). Kolb’s learning styles and learning preferences: Is there a linkage? Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 24, 99–108.
Lord, T. R. (1997). A comparison between traditional and constructivist teaching in college biology. Innovative Higher Education, 21, 197–216.
Loyens, S. M. M., Magda, J., & Rikers, R. M. J. P. (2008). Self-directed learning in problem-based learning and its relationships with self-regulated learning. Educational Psychology Review, 20, 411–427.
MacGregor Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row Publishers.
Marsh, H. W., & Martin, A. J. (2011). Academic self-concept and academic achievement: Relations and causal ordering. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 59–77.
Maskit, D. (2011). Teachers’ attitudes toward pedagogical changes during various stages of professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 851–860.
Maudsley, G., & Strivens, J. (2000). Promoting professional knowledge, experiential learning and critical thinking for medical students. Medical Education, 34, 535–544.
Maurer, T. J., Lippstreu, M., & Judge, T. A. (2008). Structural model of employee involvement in skill development activity: The role of individual differences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 336–350.
Mazur, E. (2009). Farewell, lecture? Science, 323, 50–51.
McKinney, D., Dyck, J. L., & Luber, E. S. (2009). iTunes University and the classroom: Can podcasts replace professors? Computers & Education, 52, 617–623.
McKown, C., & Weinstein, R. S. (2008). Teacher expectations, classroom context, and the achievement gap. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 235–261.
McManus, D. A. (2005). Leaving the lectern: Cooperative learning and the critical first days of students working in groups. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mercer, S., & Ryan, S. (2010). A mindset for EFL: Learners’ beliefs about the role of natural talent. ELT Journal, 64, 436–444.
Meyers, C., & Jones, T. B. (1993). Promoting active learning: Strategies for the college classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mezirow, J. (1978). Education for perspective transformation: Women’s re-entry programs in community college. New York: Center for Adult Education, Teachers College, Columbia University.
Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mezirow, J. (1994). Understanding transformation theory. Adult Education Quarterly, 44, 222–232.
Mezirow, J. (1995). Transformative theory of adult learning. In M. R. Welton (Ed.), In defense of the lifeworld: Critical perspectives on adult learning (pp. 39–70). Albany: State University of New York Press.
Mezirow, J. (1996). Contemporary paradigms of learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 46, 158–172.
Mezirow, J. (1997). Transformative learning: Theory to practice. In P. Cranton (Ed.), Transformative learning in action: Insights from practice. New directions for adult and continuing education, no. 74 (pp. 5–12). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Mezirow, J. (1998). On critical reflection. Adult Education Quarterly, 48, 185–198.
Mezirow, J. (2000). Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a theory in progress. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Michael, J. (2006). Where’s the evidence that active learning works? Advances in Physiology Education, 30, 159–167.
Miettinen, R. (2000). The concept of experiential learning and John Dewey’s theory of reflective thought and action. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 19, 54–72.
Millis, B. J. (Ed.). (2010). Cooperative learning in higher education: Across the disciplines, across the academy. Sterling: Stylus.
Moeller, T. G. (1985). Using classroom debates in teaching developmental psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 12, 207–209.
Moon, J. A. (2004). A handbook of reflective and experiential learning: Theory and practice. New York: Routledge.
Morton, K. L., Keith, S. E., & Beauchamp, M. R. (2010). Transformational teaching and physical activity: A new paradigm for adolescent health promotion? Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 248–257.
Moskovitz, C., & Kellogg, D. (2011). Inquiry-based writing in the laboratory course. Science, 332, 919–920.
Nodine, B. F., Ernst, R. M., Broeker, C. B., & Benjamin, L. T. (Eds.). (1999). Activities handbook for teaching psychology. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Norman, G. R., & Schmidt, H. G. (2000). Effectiveness of problem-based learning curricula: Theory, practice and paper darts. Medical Education, 34, 721–728.
O’Donnell, A. M. (2006). The role of peers and group learning. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 781–802). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
O’Donnell, A. M., Hmelo-Silver, C. E., & Erkens, G. (Eds.). (2006). Collaborative learning, reasoning, and technology. Mahway: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
O’Donovan, A., Hughes, B. M., Slavich, G. M., Lynch, L., Cronin, M. T., O’Farrelly, C., et al. (2010). Clinical anxiety, cortisol, and interleukin-6: Evidence for specificity in emotion–biology relationships. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 24, 1074–1077.
O’Neill, G., & McMahon, T. (2005). Student-centered learning: What does it mean for students and lecturers? In G. O’Neill, S. Moore, & B. McMullin (Eds.), Emerging issues in the practice of university learning and teaching. Dublin: All Ireland Society for Higher Education.
Osborne, J. (2010). Arguing to learn in science: The role of collaborative, critical discourse. Science, 328, 463–466.
Pajares, F. (1996). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic settings. Review of Educational Research, 66, 543–578.
Pekrun, R. (2011). Emotions as drivers of learning and cognitive development. In R. A. Calvo & S. K. D’Mello (Eds.), New perspectives on affect and learning technologies: Explorations in the learning sciences, instructional systems and performance technologies (pp. 23–39). New York: Springer.
Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2006). Achievement goals and discrete achievement emotions: A theoretical model and prospective test. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 583–597.
Pekrun, R., Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2009). Achievement goals and achievement emotions: Testing a model of their joint relations with academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101, 115–135.
Pekrun, R., Frenzel, A., Goetz, T., & Perry, R. P. (2007). The control-value theory of achievement emotions: An integrative approach to emotions in education. In P. A. Schutz & R. Pekrun (Eds.), Emotion in education (pp. 13–36). San Diego: Academic Press.
Piaget, J. (1926). The language and thought of the child. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Company.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction, organizational citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 1, 107–142.
Preszler, R. W. (2009). Replacing lecture with peer-led workshops improves student learning. CBE Life Sciences Education, 8, 182–192.
Price, L. (2004). Individual differences in learning: Cognitive control, cognitive style, and learning style. Educational Psychology: An International Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology, 24, 681–698.
Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93, 223–231.
Pritchard, A., & Woollard, J. (2010). Psychology for the classroom: Constructivism and social learning. New York: Routledge.
Rafferty, A. E., & Griffin, M. A. (2004). Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 329–354.
Reinig, B. A., Horowitz, I., & Whittenburg, G. E. (2011). The effects of team-based learning on student attitudes and satisfaction. Decisions Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 9, 27–47.
Richardson, D. (2008). Don’t dump the didactic lecture; fix it. Advances in Physiology Education, 32, 23–24.
Richmond, A. S., & Kindelberger Hagan, L. (2011). Promoting higher level thinking in psychology: Is active learning the answer? Teaching of Psychology, 38, 102–105.
Robbins, P., & Alvy, H. B. (2004). The new principal’s fieldbook: Strategies for success. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Rosebrough, T. R., & Leverett, R. G. (2011). Transformational teaching in the information age: Making why and how we teach relevant to students. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectations and pupils’ intellectual development. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Ross, J., A. (1994, June). Beliefs that make a difference: The origins and impacts of teacher efficacy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies.
Rubie-Davies, C. M. (2006). Teacher expectations and student self-perceptions: Exploring relationships. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 537–552.
Rubie-Davies, C. M. (2010). Teacher expectations and perceptions of student attributes: Is there a relationship? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 121–135.
Saklofske, D. H., Michayluk, J. O., & Randhawa, B. S. (1988). Teachers’ efficacy and teaching behaviors. Psychological Reports, 63, 407–414.
Saville, B. K., Zinn, T. E., Neef, N. A., Van Norman, R., & Ferreri, S. J. (2006). A comparison of interteaching and lecture in the college classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 49–61.
Schmidt, H. G. (1983). Problem-based learning rationale and description. Medical Education, 17, 11–16.
Schunk, D. H., & Hanson, A. R. (1985). Peer models: Influence on children’s self-efficacy and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 313–322.
Schunk, D. H., & Mullen, C. A. (2012). Self-efficacy as an engaged learner. In S. J. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 219–235). New York: Springer.
Schunk, D. H., & Pajares, F. (2009). Self-efficacy theory. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 35–54). New York: Routledge.
Schunk, D. H., & Rice, J. M. (1986). Extended attributional feedback: Sequence effects during remedial reading instruction. Journal of Early Adolescence, 6, 55–66.
Seery, M. D. (2011). Challenge or threat? Cardiovascular indexes of resilience and vulnerability to potential stress in humans. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 1603–1610.
Shaughnessy, M. F. (2004). An interview with Anita Woolfolk: The educational psychology of teacher efficacy. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 153–176.
Shellenbarger, T., Palmer, E. A., Labant, A. L., & Kuzneski, J. L. (2005). Use of faculty reflection to improve teaching. In M. H. Oermann & K. T. Heinrich (Eds.), Annual review of nursing education volume 3, 2005: Strategies for teaching, assessment, and program planning. New York: Springer.
Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2010). Teacher self-efficacy and teacher burnout: A study of relations. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26, 1059–1069.
Skott, B. P., & Ward, M. (Eds.). (2012). Active learning exercises for research methods in social science. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Slavich, G., M. (2005, October). Transformational teaching. E-xcellence in Teaching, Volume 5. Retrieved from http://www.teachpsych.org/ebooks/eit2005/eit05-11.html.
Slavich, G. M. (2006a). Transformational teaching. In T. Zinn, B. Saville, & J. Williams (Eds.), Essays from e-xcellence in teaching: 2005 (Vol. 5). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Slavich, G. M. (2006b). On becoming a teacher of psychology. In J. G. Irons, B. C. Beins, C. Burke, B. Buskist, V. Hevern, & J. E. Williams (Eds.), The teaching of psychology in autobiography: Perspectives from exemplary psychology teachers (pp. 92–99). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Slavich, G. M. (2009). On 50 years of giving psychology away: An interview with Philip Zimbardo. Teaching of Psychology, 36, 278–284.
Slavich, G. M., O’Donovan, A., Epel, E. S., & Kemeny, M. E. (2010). Black sheep get the blues: A psychobiological model of social rejection and depression. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 39–45.
Slavich, G. M., Way, B. M., Eisenberger, N. I., & Taylor, S. E. (2010). Neural sensitivity to social rejection is associated with inflammatory responses to social stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 14817–14822.
Slavin, R. E. (1977). Classroom reward structure: An analytical and practical review. Review of Educational Research, 47, 633–650.
Slavin, R. E. (1995). Cooperative learning: Theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Slavin, R. E., Madden, N. E., Chambers, B., & Haxby, B. (2009). Two million children: Success for all. Thousand Oaks: Corwin.
Smith, M. K., Wood, W. B., Adams, W. K., Wieman, C., Knight, J. K., Guild, N., et al. (2009). Why peer discussion improves student performance on in-class concept questions. Science, 323, 122–124.
Stajkovic, A. D., Lee, D., & Nyberg, A. J. (2009). Collective efficacy, group potency, and group performance: Meta-analyses of their relationships, and test of a mediation model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 814–828.
Stark, G. (2006). Stop “going over” exams! The multiple benefits of team exams. Journal of Management Education, 30, 818–827.
Stockdale, S. L., & Williams, R. L. (2004). Cooperative learning groups at the college level: Differential effects on high, average, and low exam performers. Journal of Behavioral Education, 13, 37–50.
Sullivan, S. S., & Glanz, J. G. (2009). Supervision that improves teaching and learning: Strategies and techniques (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Svinicki, M. D. (2007). Moving beyond “it worked”: The ongoing evolution of research on problem-based learning in medical education. Educational Psychology Review, 19, 49–61.
Svinivki, M., & McKeachie, W. J. (2011). McKeachie’s teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers (Thirteenthth ed.). Wadsworth: Belmont, CA.
Tang, X., Coffey, J. E., Elby, A., & Levin, D. M. (2010). The scientific method and scientific inquiry: Tensions in teaching and learning. Science Education, 94, 29–47.
Tärnvik, A. (2007). Revival of the case method: A way to retain student-centered learning in a post-PBL era. Medical Teacher, 29, 32–36.
Tauber, R. T. (1997). Self-fulfilling prophecy: A practical guide to its use in education. Westport: Praeger Publishers.
Taylor, E. W. (2007). An update of transformative learning theory: A critical review of the empirical research (1999-2005). International Journal of Lifelong Education, 26, 173–191.
Thompson, C. P., Skowronski, J. J., Larsen, S. F., & Betz, A. L. (1998). Autobiographical memory: Remembering what and remembering when. Hillside: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Treisman, U. (1992). Studying students studying calculus: A look at the lives of minority mathematics students in college. The College Mathematics Journal, 23, 362–372.
Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 783–805.
Twenge, J. M. (2009). Generational changes and their impact in the classroom: Teaching Generation Me. Medical Education, 43, 398–405.
Ueckert, C., Adams, A., & Lock, J. (2011). Redesigning a large-enrollment introductory biology course. CBE Life Sciences Education, 10, 164–174.
van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Sluijsmans, D. M. A. (2008). Toward a synthesis of cognitive load theory, four-component instructional design, and self-directed learning. Educational Psychology Review, 21, 55–66.
VanderStoep, S. W., Fagerlin, A., & Feenstra, J. S. (2000). What do student remember from introductory psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 27, 89–92.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language, revised edition. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Ware, M. E., & Johnson, D. E. (2000). Handbook of demonstrations and activities in the teaching of psychology (2nd ed.). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ware, H. W., & Kitsantasa, A. (2011). Predicting teacher commitment using principal and teacher efficacy variables: An HLM approach. The Journal of Educational Research, 104, 183–193.
Webb, N. M. (2009). The teacher’s role in promoting collaborative dialogue in the classroom. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 1–28.
Weimer, M. (2002). Learner-centered teaching: Five key changes to practice. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Westmacott, R., Black, S. E., Freedman, M., & Moscovitch, M. (2003). The contribution of autobiographical significance to semantic memory: Evidence from Alzheimer’s disease, semantic dementia, and amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 42, 25–48.
Wilson, J. H., & Wilson, S. B. (2007). The first day of class affects student motivation: An experimental study. Teaching of Psychology, 34, 226–230.
Wolters, C. A., & Taylor, D. J. (2012). A self-regulated learning perspective on student engagement. In S. J. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 635–651). New York: Springer.
Wood, E. J. (1989). Makin lectures more exciting. Biomedical Education, 17, 9–12.
Woolfolk Hoy, A., & Davis, H. A. (2006). Teacher self-efficacy and its influence on the achievement of adolescents. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 117–138). Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.
Yoder, J. D., & Hochevar, C. M. (2005). Encouraging active learning can improve students’ performance on examinations. Teaching of Psychology, 32, 91–95.
Young, M. R. (2005). The motivational effects of the classroom environment in facilitating self-regulated learning. Journal of Marketing Education, 27, 25–40.
Zhang, L. F., Sternberg, R. J., & Rayner, S. (Eds.). (2012). Handbook of intellectual styles: Preferences in cognition, learning, and thinking. New York: Springer.
Zimbardo, P. G. (2005). Optimizing the power and magic of teaching. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 11–21.
Zimbardo, P. G., Butler, L. D., & Wolfe, V. A. (2003). Cooperative college examinations: More gain, less pain when students share information and grades. The Journal of Experimental Education, 71, 101–126.
Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance. New York: Routledge.
Preparation of this review was supported by a Society in Science: Branco Weiss Fellowship and by a Society for the Teaching of Psychology Instructional Resource Award to George M. Slavich. We thank Keely Muscatell and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on a previous version of this paper.
About this article
Cite this article
Slavich, G.M., Zimbardo, P.G. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods. Educ Psychol Rev 24, 569–608 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-012-9199-6
- Collaborative learning
- Experiential lessons
- Shared vision
- Personal growth