Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 271–285 | Cite as

Risk and Protective Factors for Homophobic Bullying in Schools: An Application of the Social–Ecological Framework

  • Jun Sung HongEmail author
  • James Garbarino


Homophobic bullying is a serious concern for students, parents, teachers, and school officials. This article reviews evidence on the status of this problem and how it may be addressed in a multilevel and multidisciplinary manner growing out of a social–ecological perspective on homophobic bullying as a social phenomenon. The ecological framework developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner (1977, 1979) is applied to organize this effort, which includes micro-, exo-, and macro-systems in which behavior and development are embedded. The inherent fluidity of experience postulated by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological approach offers hope that as practices and policy to promote diversity move forward, they will reshape the social ecology of sexual minority youth.


Adolescents Bullying Ecological systems theory Homophobia Sexual minority Victimization 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social Work, Children and Family Research CenterUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyLoyola University ChicagoChicagoUSA

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