Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 167–186 | Cite as

Identifying Potential Mediators and Moderators of the Association Between Child Maltreatment and Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in School

  • Jun Sung HongEmail author
  • Dorothy L. Espelage
  • Andrew Grogan-Kaylor
  • Paula Allen-Meares


A growing body of literature is demonstrating associations between childhood maltreatment and bullying involvement at school. In this literature review, four potential mediators (explanatory) and three potential moderators (mitigates or exacerbates) of the association between childhood maltreatment and school bullying are proposed. Mediators include emotional dysregulation, depression, anger, and social skills deficits. Moderators reviewed include quality of parent–child relationships, peer relationships, and teacher relationships. Although there might be insurmountable challenges to addressing child maltreatment in primary or universal school-based prevention programs, it is possible to intervene to improve these potentially mediating and moderating factors.


Bullying Child welfare Maltreatment Mediators Moderators School 


  1. Akers, R. (1998). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Altshuler, S. J. (1997). A reveille for school social workers: Children in foster care need our help! [Trends & issues]. Social Work Education, 19, 121–127.Google Scholar
  3. Altshuler, S. J. (2003). From barriers to successful collaboration: Public schools and child welfare working together. Social Work, 48, 52–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arsenio, W. F., & Lemerise, E. A. (2001). Varieties of childhood bullying: Values, emotion processes, and social competences. Social Development, 10, 59–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aspelmeier, J. E., Elliott, A. N., & Smith, C. H. (2007). Childhood sexual abuse, attachment, and trauma symptoms in college females: The moderating role of attachment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 549–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bacon, H. (2001). Attachment, trauma and child sexual abuse: An exploration. In S. Richardson & H. Bacon (Eds.), Creative responses to child sexual abuse: Challenges and dilemmas (pp. 44–59). London: Jessica Kingsley.Google Scholar
  7. Baldry, A. C., & Farrington, D. P. (1998). Parenting influences on bullying and victimization. Criminal and Legal Psychology, 3, 237–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baldry, A. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2005). Protective factors as moderators of risk factors in adolescence bullying. Social Psychology of Education, 8, 263–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barboza, G. E., Schiamberg, L. B., Oehmke, J., Korzeniewski, S. J., Post, L. A., & Heraux, C. G. (2009). Individual characteristics and the multiple contexts of adolescent bullying: An ecological perspective. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 101–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bender, K. (2010). Why do some maltreated youth become juvenile offenders? A call for further investigation and adaptation of youth services. Children and Youth Services Review, 32, 466–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bennett, J. A. (2000). Mediator and moderator variables in nursing research: Conceptual and statistical differences. Research in Nursing & Health, 23, 415–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bennett, D. S., Sullivan, M. W., & Lewis, M. (2005). Young children’s adjustment as a function of maltreatment, shame, and anger. Child Maltreatment, 10, 311–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bevan, E., & Higgins, D. J. (2002). Is domestic violence learned? The contribution of five forms of child maltreatment to men’s violence and adjustment. Journal of Family Violence, 17, 223–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bolger, K. E., & Patterson, C. J. (2001). Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to peer rejection. Child Development, 72, 549–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolger, K. E., Patterson, C. J., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (1998). Peer relationships and self-esteem among children who have been maltreated. Child Development, 69, 1171–1197.Google Scholar
  17. Bollmer, J. M., Milich, R., Harris, M. J., & Maras, M. A. (2005). A friend in need: The role of friendship quality as a protective factor in peer victimization and bullying. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 701–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bornovalova, M. A., Gwadz, M. A., Kahler, C., Aklin, W. M., & Lejuez, C. W. (2008). Sensation seeking and risk-taking propensity as mediators in the relationship between childhood abuse and HIV-related risk behavior. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bosworth, K., Espelage, D. L., & Simon, T. (1999). Factors associated with bullying behavior in middle school students. Journal of Early Adolescence, 19, 341–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Briere, J., & Elliott, D. M. (2003). Prevalence and psychological sequelae of self-reported childhood physical and sexual abuse in a general population sample of men and women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27, 1205–1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Browne, A., & Finkelhor, D. (1986). Impact of child sexual abuse: A review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 66–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Camodeca, M., & Goossens, F. A. (2005). Aggression, social cognitions, anger and sadness in bullies and victims. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46, 186–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cassady, J., & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 348–365). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  24. Champion, K., Vernberg, E., & Shipman, K. (2003). Nonbullying victims of bullies: Aggression, social skills, and friendship characteristics. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 24, 535–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chang, L., Schwartz, D., Dodge, K. A., & McBride-Chang, C. (2003). Harsh parenting in relation to child emotion regulation and aggression. Journal of Family Psychology, 17, 598–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chapple, C. L., Tyler, K. A., & Bersani, B. E. (2005). Child neglect and adolescent violence: Examining the effects of self-control and peer rejection. Violence and Victims, 20, 39–53.Google Scholar
  27. Child Welfare Information Gateway (2007). Definitions in federal law. Retrieved July 14, 2011, from
  28. Cicchetti, D. (1989). How research on child maltreatment has informed the study of child development: Perspectives from developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 377–431). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cicchetti, D., Lynch, M. L., Shonk, S., & Manly, J. T. (1992). An organizational perspective on peer relations in maltreated children. In R. D. Parke & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Family-peer relationships: Modes of linkage (pp. 345–383). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  30. Contreras, J. M., & Kerns, K. A. (2000). Emotional regulation processes: Explaining links between parent–child attachment and peer relationships. In K. A. Kerns, J. M. Contreras, & A. M. Neal-Barnett (Eds.), Family and peers: Linking two social worlds (pp. 137–168). Westport: Praefer.Google Scholar
  31. Contreras, J. M., Kerns, K. A., Weimer, B. L., Gentzler, A. L., & Tomich, P. L. (2000). Emotion regulation as a mediator of associations between mother–child attachment and peer relationships in middle childhood. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 111–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cyr, M., McDuff, P., & Wright, J. (2006). Prevalence and predictors of dating violence among adolescent female victims of child sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21, 1000–1017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Danielson, C. K., de Arellano, M. A., Kilpatrick, D. G., Saunders, B. E., & Resnick, H. S. (2005). Child maltreatment in depressed adolescents: Differences in symptomatology based on history of abuse. Child Maltreatment, 10, 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Demaray, M. K., & Malecki, C. K. (2003). Perceptions of the frequency and importance of social support by students classified as victims, bullies and bully/victims in an urban middle school. School Psychology Review, 32, 471–489.Google Scholar
  35. DeRosier, M. E. (2004). Building relationships and combating bullying: Effectiveness of a school-based social skills group intervention. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 196–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dill, E. J., Vernberg, E. M., Fonagy, P., Twemlow, S. W., & Gamm, B. K. (2004). Negative affect in victimized children: The roles of social withdrawal, peer rejection, and attitudes toward bullying. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 159–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dishion, T., McCord, J., & Poulin, F. (1999). When intervention harm: Peer groups and problem behavior. American Psychologist, 54, 755–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dishion, T. J., Poulin, F., & Burraston, B. (2002). Peer group dynamics associated with iatrogenic effect in group interventions with high-risk young adolescents. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 91, 79–92.Google Scholar
  39. Dodge, K. A. (1991). The structure and function of reactive and proactive aggression. In D. Pepler & K. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 201–218). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  40. Duncan, R. D. (1999). Maltreatment by parents and peers: The relationship between child abuse, bully victimization, and psychological distress. Child Maltreatment, 4, 45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82, 405–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dussich, J. P. J., & Maekoya, C. (2007). Physical child harm and bullying-related behaviors: A comparative study in Japan, South Africa, and the United States. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 51, 495–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Egeland, B., Carlson, E., & Sroufe, L. A. (1993). Resilience and process. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 517–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ehrensaft, M. K., Cohen, P., Brown, J., Smailes, E., Chen, H., & Johnson, J. G. (2003). Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: A 20-year prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 741–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Elias, M. J., Zins, J. E., Weissberg, K. S., Greenberg, M. T., Haynes, M., Kessler, R., et al. (1997). Promoting social and emotional learning: Guidelines for educators. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  46. Elliott, M. (Ed.). (1991). Bullying: A practical guide to coping for schools. Exeter: Longman.Google Scholar
  47. Elliott, G. C., Cunningham, S. M., Linder, M., Colangelo, M., & Gross, M. (2005). Child physical abuse and self-perceived social isolation among adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 20, 1663–1684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. English, D. J. (1998). The extent and consequences of child maltreatment. The Future of Children, 8, 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Espelage, D., & Horne, A. (2008). School violence and bullying prevention: From research based explanations to empirically based solutions. In S. Brown & R. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (4th ed., pp. 588–606). Hoboken: Wiley.Google Scholar
  50. Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. M. (2003). Research on school bullying and victimization: What have we learned and where do we go from here? School Psychology Review, 32, 365–383.Google Scholar
  51. Espelage, D. L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T. R. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78, 326–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Espelage, D. L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T. R. (2001). Short-term stability and prospective correlates of bullying in middle-school students: An examination of potential demographic, psychosocial, and environmental influences. Violence and Victims, 16, 411–426.Google Scholar
  53. Fekkes, M., Pijpers, F. I. M., & Verloove-Vanhorick, S. P. (2004). Bullying behavior and associations with psychosomatic complaints and depression in victims. The Journal of Pediatrics, 144, 17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fekkes, M., Pijpers, F. I. M., Fredriks, A. M., Vogels, T., & Verloove-Vanhorick, S. P. (2006). Do bullied children get ill, or do ill children get bullied? A prospective cohort study on the relationship between bullying and health-related symptoms. Pediatrics, 117, 1568–1574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. J. (1999). Prospective childhood predictors of deviant peer affiliation in adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 581–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Fox, C., & Boulton, M. (2003). Evaluating the effectiveness of a social skills training (SST) programme for victims of bullying. Educational Research, 45, 231–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Fox, C. L., & Boulton, M. J. (2005). The social skills problems of victims of bullying: Self, peer and teacher perceptions. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 313–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Frey, K. S., Nolen, S. B., Van Schoiack Edstrom, L., & Hirschstein, M. K. (2005). Effects of a school-based social-emotional competence program: Linking children's goals, attributions and behavior. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 171–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Garbarino, J. G. (2004). Foreword. In D. L. Espelage & S. M. Swearer (Eds.), Bullying in American schools: A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention (pp. 6–8). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  60. Gershoff, E. T. (2002). Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 128, 539–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gershoff, E. T., Grogan-Kaylor, A., Lansford, J. E., Chang, L., Zelli, A., Deater-Deckard, K., et al. (2010). Parent discipline practices in an international sample: Associations with child behaviors and moderation by perceived normativeness. Child Development, 81, 487–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gil, A., Gama, C. S., de Jesus, D. R., Lobato, M. I., Zimmer, M., & Belmonte-de-Abreu, P. (2009). The association of child abuse and neglect with adult disability in schizophrenia and the prominent role of physical neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 618–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gilbert, R., Widom, C. S., Browne, K., Fergusson, D., Webb, E., & Janson, S. (2009). Child maltreatment 1: Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high-income countries. The Lancet, 373, 68–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Glaser, D. (2000). Child abuse and neglect and the brain: A review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 97–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Goren, S. G. (1996). Child protection and the school social worker. In R. Constable, S. McDonald, & J. P. Flynn (Eds.), School social work: Practice, policy & research perspectives (pp. 355–366). Chicago: Lyceum Books.Google Scholar
  66. Grassi-Oliveira, R., & Stein, L. M. (2008). Childhood maltreatment associated with PTSD and emotional distress in low-income adults: The burden of neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 1089–1094.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 41–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Grogan-Kaylor, A., & Otis, M. D. (2003). The effect of childhood maltreatment on adult criminality: A tobit regression analysis. Child Maltreatment, 8(2), 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Han, Y., & Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2011). Parenting and youth mental health in South Korea using fixed effects model. Journal of Family Issues, in press.Google Scholar
  70. Harper, F. W. K., & Arias, I. (2004). The role of shame in predicting adult anger and depressive symptoms among victims of child psychological maltreatment. Journal of Family Violence, 19, 359–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Herrenkohl, E. C., Herrenkohl, R. R., & Egolf, B. (1994). Resilient early school-age children from maltreating homes: Outcomes in late adolescence. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 64, 301–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Herrenkohl, T. I., Huang, B., Tajima, E. A., & Whitney, S. D. (2003). Examining the link between child abuse and youth violence: An analysis of mediating mechanisms. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18, 1189–1208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hinshaw, S. P. (2007). Moderators and mediators of treatment outcome for youth with ADHD: Understanding for whom and how interventions work. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 664–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Holmes, W. C. (2008). Men’s self-definition of abusive childhood sexual experiences, and potentially related risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 83–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Holt, M. K., & Espelage, D. L. (2007). Perceived social support among bullies, victims, and bully–victims. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 984–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Howe, C., & Espinosa, M. P. (1985). The consequences of child abuse for the formation of relationships with peers. Child Abuse & Neglect, 9, 397–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hugh-Jones, S., & Smith, P. K. (1999). Self-reports of short- and long-term effects of bullying on children who stammer. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 141–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hussey, J. M., Chang, J. J., & Kotch, J. B. (2006). Child maltreatment in the United States: Prevalence, risk factors, and adolescent health consequences. Pediatrics, 118, 933–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ileana, A. (2004). The legacy of child maltreatment: Long-term health consequences for women. Journal of Women's Health, 13, 468–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Johnsona, R. M., Kotch, J. B., Catellier, D. J., Winsor, J. R., Duroft, V., Hunter, W., et al. (2002). Adverse behavioral and emotional outcomes from child abuse and witnessed violence. Child Maltreatment, 7, 179–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kaukiainen, A., Salmivalli, C., Lagerspetz, K., Tamminen, M., Vauras, M., Maki, H., et al. (2002). Learning difficulties, social intelligence, and self-concept: Connections to bully–victim problems. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43, 269–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Keenan, K. (2000). Emotion dysregulation as a risk factor for child psychopathology. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7, 418–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kelly, L. (1992). The connections between disability and child abuse: A review of the research evidence. Child Abuse Review, 1, 157–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kerns, K. A., Abraham, M. M., Schlegelmilch, A., & Morgan, T. A. (2007). Mother–child attachment in later middle childhood: Assessment approaches and associations with mood and emotion regulation. Attachment & Human Development, 9, 33–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Kim, Y. S., Leventhal, B. L., Koh, Y. J., Hubbard, A., & Boyce, W. T. (2006). School bullying and youth violence: Causes or consequences of psychopathologic behavior? Archives of General Psychiatry, 63, 1035–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Klomek, A. B., Marrocco, F., Kleinman, M., Schonfeld, I. S., & Gould, M. S. (2007). Bullying, depression, and suicidality in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46, 40–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Klomek, A. B., Marrocco, F., Kleinman, M., Schonfeld, I. S., & Gould, M. S. (2008). Peer victimization, depression, and suicidality in adolescents. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 38, 166–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Klomek, A. B., Sourander, A., Niemela, S., Kumpulainen, K., Piha, J., Tamminen, T., et al. (2009). Childhood bullying behaviors as a risk for suicide attempts and completed suicides: A population-based birth cohort study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 254–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Knutson, J. F., & Schartz, H. A. (1997). Physical abuse and neglect of children. In T. A. Widiger, A. J. Frances, H. A. Pincus, R. Ross, M. B. First, & W. Davis (Eds.), DSM-IV sources, vol. 3 (pp. 713–804). Washington: American Psychiatric Association Press.Google Scholar
  90. Knutson, J. F., DeGarmo, D. S., & Reid, J. B. (2004). Social disadvantage and neglectful parenting as precursors to the development of antisocial and aggressive child behavior: Testing a theoretical model. Aggressive Behavior, 30, 187–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Leadbeater, B. J., Kupermine, G. P., Hertzog, C., & Blatt, S. J. (1999). A multivariate model of gender differences in adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental Psychology, 35, 1268–1282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lee, V., & Hoaken, P. N. S. (2007). Cognition, emotion, and neurobiological development: Mediating the relation between maltreatment and aggression. Child Maltreatment, 12, 281–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lee, B. R., & Thompson, R. (2009). Examining externalizing behavior trajectories of youth in group homes: Is there evidence for peer contagion? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 31–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Leeb, R. T., Paulozzi, L., Melanson, C., Smith, T., & Arias, I. (2008). Child maltreatment surveillance: Uniform definition for public health and recommended data elements, version 1.0. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.Google Scholar
  95. Lev-Wiesel, R., Daphna-Tekoah, S., & Hallak, M. (2009). Childhood sexual abuse as a predictor of birth-related posttraumatic stress and postpartum posttraumatic stress. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 877–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lynch, M., & Cicchetti, D. (1992). Maltreated children’s reports of relatedness to their teachers. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 57, 81–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Marsee, M. A., & Frick, P. J. (2007). Exploring the cognitive and emotional correlates to proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of detained girls. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35, 969–981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mikulincer, M., Shaver, P. R., & Pereg, D. (2003). Attachment theory and affect regulation: The dynamics, development, and cognitive consequences of attachment-related strategies. Motivation and Emotion, 27, 77–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Miller, K. (2003). Understanding and treating reactive attachment disorder. A workshop presented by Medial Educational Services, Eau Claire, Wisconsin in Arlington, TX.Google Scholar
  100. Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2001). Childhood predictors differentiate life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways among males and females. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 355–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Mohr, A. (2006). Family variables associated with peer victimization: Does family violence enhance the probability of being victimized by peers? Swiss Journal of Psychology, 65, 107–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mouttapa, M., Valente, T., Gallaher, P., Rohrbach, L. A., & Unger, J. B. (2004). Social network predictors of bullying and victimization. Adolescence, 39, 315–335.Google Scholar
  103. Ohene, S.-A., Ireland, M., McNeely, C., & Borowsky, I. W. (2006). Parental expectations, physical punishment, and violence among adolescents who score positive on a psychosocial screening test in primary care. Pediatrics, 117, 441–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Olweus, D. (1993). Bully/victim problems among school-children: Long-term consequences and an effective intervention program. In S. Hodgins (Ed.), Mental disorder and crime (pp. 317–349). Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  105. Poulin, F., Dishion, T. J., & Burraston, B. (2001). 3-year iatrogenic effects associated with aggregating high-risk adolescents in cognitive-behavioral preventive interventions. Applied Developmental Science, 5, 214–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rigby, K. (2003). Consequences of bullying in schools. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48, 583–590.Google Scholar
  107. Rigby, K. (2005). Why do some children bully at school? School Psychology International, 26, 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rigby, R., & Bagshaw, D. (2003). Prospects of adolescent students collaborating with teachers in addressing issues of bullying and conflict in schools. Educational Psychologist, 23, 535–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Robers, S., Zhang, J., Truman, J., & Snyder, T. D. (2010). Indicators of school crime and safety: 2010 (NCES 2011-002/NCJ 230812). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  110. Rodkin, P. C., & Hodges, E. V. E. (2003). Bullies and victims in the peer ecology: Four questions for psychologists and school professionals. School Psychology Review, 32, 384–400.Google Scholar
  111. Roland, E., & Idsoe, T. (2001). Aggression and bullying. Aggressive Behavior, 27, 446–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Roode, Tv, Dickson, N., Herbison, P., & Paul, C. (2009). Child sexual abuse and persistence of risky sexual behaviors and negative sexual outcomes over adulthood: Findings from a birth cohort. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 161–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Runyon, M. K., & Kenny, M. C. (2002). Relationship of attributional style, depression, and posttrauma distress among children who suffered physical or sexual abuse. Child Maltreatment, 7, 254–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ryan, J. P., Marshall, J. M., Herz, D., & Hernandez, P. M. (2008). Juvenile delinquency in child welfare: Investigating group home effects. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 1088–1099.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  116. Schmidt, M. E., & Bagwell, C. L. (2007). The protective role of friendships in overtly and relationally victimized boys and girls. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 53, 439–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schneider, B. H., Attilli, G., Nadel, J., & Weissberg, R. P. (1989). Social competence in developmental perspective. Dordrecht: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  118. Schwartz, D., & Proctor, L. (2000). Community violence exposure and children’s social adjustment in the school peer group: The mediating roles of emotion regulation and social cognition. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 670–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Schwartz, D., Dodge, K. A., & Cowie, J. D. (1993). The emergence of chronic peer victimization in boy’s play groups. Child Development, 64, 1755–1772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Schwartz, D., Dodge, K. A., Pettit, G. S., & Bates, J. E. (1997). The early socialization of aggressive victims of bullying. Child Development, 68, 665–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Schwartz, D., Proctor, L. J., & Chien, D. H. (2001). The aggressive victim of bullying: Emotional and behavioral dysregulation as a pathway to victimization by peers. In J. Juvonen & S. Graham (Eds.), Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized (pp. 147–174). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  122. Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1998). Reactive aggression among maltreated children: The contributions of attention and emotion dysregulation. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 381–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Parental maltreatment and emotion dysregulation as risk factors for bullying and victimization in middle childhood. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 349–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Shields, A., Ryan, R. M., & Cicchetti, D. (2001). Narrative representations of caregivers and emotion dysregulation as predictors of maltreated children’s rejection by peers. Developmental Psychology, 37, 321–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7, 422–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sourander, A., Klomek, A. B., Niemela, S., Haavisto, A., Gyllenberg, D., Helenius, H., et al. (2009). Childhood predictors of completed and severe suicide attempts: Findings from the Finnish 1981 Birth Cohort Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 398–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Springer, K. W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2007). Long-term physical and mental health consequences of childhood physical abuse: Results from a large population-based sample of men and women. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 517–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Stewart, A., Livingston, M., & Dennison, S. (2008). Transitions and turning points: Examining the links between child maltreatment and juvenile offending. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 51–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Stockdale, M. S., Hangaduambo, S., Duys, D., Larson, K., & Sarvela, P. D. (2002). Rural elementary students’, parents’, and teachers’ perceptions of bullying. American Journal of Health Behavior, 26, 266–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Stocker, C. M., & Youngblade, L. (1999). Marital conflict and parental hostility: Links with children’s sibling and peer relationships. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 598–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Stuewig, J., & McCloskey, L. A. (2005). The relation of child maltreatment to shame and guilt among adolescents: Psychological routes to depression and delinquency. Child Maltreatment, 10, 324–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Stuwig, J. (2005). The relation of child maltreatment to shame and guilt among adolescents: Psychological routes to depression and delinquency. Child Maltreatment, 10, 324–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Swearer, S. M., Peugh, J., Espelage, D. L., Siebecker, A. B., Kingsbury, W. L., & Bevins, K. S. (2006). A socioecological model for bullying prevention and intervention in early adolescence: An exploratory examination. In S. R. Jimerson & M. J. Furlong (Eds.), Handbook of school violence and school safety: From research to practice (pp. 257–273). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  134. Tajima, E. A. (2004). Correlates of the co-occurrence of wife abuse and child abuse among a representative sample. Journal of Family Violence, 19, 399–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Thornberry, T. P., Ireland, T. O., & Smith, C. A. (2001). The importance of timing: The varying impact of childhood and adolescent maltreatment on multiple problem outcomes. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 957–979.Google Scholar
  136. Toblin, R. L., Schwartz, D., Gorman, A. H., & Abou-ezzeddine, T. (2005). Social-cognitive and behavioral attributes of aggressive victims of bullying. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 329–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Toth, S. L., Manly, J. T., & Cicchetti, D. (1992). Child maltreatment and vulnerability to depression. Development and Psychopathology, 4, 97–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Trickett, P. K., & Kuczynski, L. (1986). Children’s misbehaviors and parental discipline strategies in abusive and nonabusive families. Developmental Psychology, 22, 115–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Turner, H. A., Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2006). The effect of lifetime victimization on the mental health of children and adolescents. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Tyler, K. A., Hoyt, D. R., Whitbeck, L. B., & Cauce, A. M. (2003). The impact of childhood sexual abuse on later sexual victimization among runaway youth. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 11, 151–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. US Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth and Families. (2009). Child maltreatment 2007. Washington: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  142. Weiss, B., Caron, A., Ball, S., Tapp, J., Johnson, M., & Weisz, J. R. (2005). Iatrogenic effects of group treatment for antisocial youths. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 1036–1044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Widom, C. (1989). The cycle of violence. Science, 244, 160–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Wolfe, D. A., Scott, K., Wekerle, C., & Pittman, A. L. (2001). Child maltreatment: Risk of adjustment problems and dating violence in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 282–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Wolfe, D. A., Wekerle, C., Scott, K., Straatman, A. L., & Grasley, C. (2004). Predicting abuse in adolescent dating relationships over 1 year: The role of child maltreatment and trauma. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 406–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Zimmermann, P., Maier, M. A., Winter, M., & Grossmann, K. E. (2001). Attachment and adolescents’ emotion regulation during a joint problem-solving task with a friend. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25, 331–343.Google Scholar
  147. Zingraff, M. T., Leiter, J., Myers, K. A., & Johnsen, M. C. (1993). Child maltreatment and youthful problem behavior. Criminology, 31, 173–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Zins, J. E., Weissberg, R. P., Wang, M. C., & Walberg, H. J. (Eds.). (2004). Building school success through social and emotional learning. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Sung Hong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dorothy L. Espelage
    • 2
  • Andrew Grogan-Kaylor
    • 3
  • Paula Allen-Meares
    • 4
  1. 1.Children and Family Research Center, School of Social WorkUniversity of Illinois at Urbana–ChampaignUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Child Development Division and Counseling, Psychology Division, Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of IllinoisChampaignUSA
  3. 3.School of Social WorkUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.University of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations