This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement emotions and those between performance avoidance goals and negative achievement emotions were large based on Cohen’s guidelines. The correlations of performance approach goals with positive and negative achievement emotions were comparable. The variation in the correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions can be explained by achievement emotion indicators. The correlations of mastery goals with enjoyment and interest were larger than those with anxiety.
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Huang, C. Achievement Goals and Achievement Emotions: A Meta-analysis. Educ Psychol Rev 23, 359 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-011-9155-x
- Achievement goal
- Goal orientation
- Achievement emotion