Advertisement

Educational Psychology Review

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 375–386 | Cite as

Interactive Example-Based Learning Environments: Using Interactive Elements to Encourage Effective Processing of Worked Examples

  • Robert K. AtkinsonEmail author
  • Alexander Renkl
Review Article

Abstract

This review describes parts of our research program on example-based learning that relates to recent efforts to incorporate interactive elements into learning environments designed to support learning from worked-out examples. Since most learners spontaneously study or process examples in a very passive or superficial manner, this review focuses on how a variety of specific interactive elements in example-based leaning environments are capable of encouraging learners to actively process the examples. The review begins with an overview of the literature on worked examples and the associated self-explanation, which is important given that the quality of self-explanation is a major factor in determining whether learners benefit from studying examples. The review notes that example-based learning environments tend to be effective but often promote passive processing. It then highlights the strengths and limitations of three types interactivity introduced to example-based learning environments. The review concludes with a discussion of the role that these interactive elements play in these learning environments.

Keywords

Worked examples Self-explanations Interactive learning environments Computer-based instruction 

References

  1. Aleven, V., Stahl, E., Schworm, S., Fischer, F., & Wallace, R. M. (2003). Help Seeking and Help Design in Interactive Learning Environments. Review of Educational Research, 73, 277–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Atkinson, R. K., Derry, S. J., Renkl, A., & Wortham, D. W. (2000). Learning from examples: Instructional principles from the worked examples research. Review of Educational Research, 70, 181–214.Google Scholar
  3. Atkinson, R. K., Renkl, A., & Merrill, M. M. (2003). Transitioning from studying examples to solving problems: Effects of self-explanation prompts and fading worked-out steps. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 774–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chi, M. T. H., & Bassok, M. (1989). Learning from examples via self-explanations. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (pp 251–282). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Chi, M. T. H., Bassok, M., Lewis, M. W., Reimann, P., & Glaser, R. (1989). Self-explanations: How students study and use examples in learning to solve problems. Cognitive Science, 13, 145–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooper, G., & Sweller, J. (1987). Effects of schema acquisition and rule automation on mathematical problem-solving transfer. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 347–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hilbert, T. S., Renkl, A., Kessler, S., & Reiss, K. (2007). Learning to prove in geometry: Learning from heuristic examples and how it can be supported. Learning & Instruction (in press).Google Scholar
  8. Kalyuga, S., Ayres, P., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2003). The expertise reversal effect. Educational Psychologist, 38, 23–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (2000). Incorporating learner experience into the design of multimedia instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92, 126–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., Tuovinen, J., & Sweller, J. (2001). When problem solving is superior to studying worked examples. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 579–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kennedy, G. E. (2004). Promoting cognition in multimedia interactivity research. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 15, 43–61.Google Scholar
  12. LeFevre, J., & Dixon, P. (1986). Do written instructions need examples? Cognition & Instruction, 3, 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Paas, F. (1992). Training strategies for attaining transfer of problem-solving skill in statistics: A cognitive load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 429–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pirolli, P. L., & Anderson, J. R. (1985). The role of learning from examples in the acquisition of recursive programming skills. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 39, 240–272.Google Scholar
  15. Pirolli, P., & Recker, M. (1994). Learning strategies and transfer in the domain of programming. Cognition & Instruction, 12, 235–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Recker, M., & Pirolli, P. (1995), Modeling individual differences in students’ learning strategies. Journal of Learning Sciences, 4, 1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Renkl, A. (1997). Learning from worked-out examples: A study on individual differences. Cognitive Science, 21, 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Renkl, A. (2002). Learning from worked-out examples: Instructional explanations supplement self-explanations. Learning & Instruction, 12, 149–176.Google Scholar
  19. Renkl, A., Atkinson, R. K., & Große, C. S. (2004). How fading worked solution steps works—a cognitive load perspective. Instructional Science, 32, 59–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Renkl, A., Atkinson, R. K., Maier, U. H., & Staley, R. (2002). From example study to problem solving: Smooth transitions help learning. Journal of Experimental Education, 70, 293–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Renkl, A., Hilbert, T., Schworm, S., & Reiss, K. (2007). Cognitive skill acquisition from complex examples: a taxonomy of examples and tentative instructional guidelines. In M. Prenzel (Eds.), Studies on the educational quality of schools. Münster, Germany: Waxmann (in press).Google Scholar
  22. Robins, S., & Mayer, R. E. (1993). Schema formation in analogical reasoning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 529–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schworm, S., & Renkl, A. (2006). Computer-supported example-based leaning: When instructional explanations reduce self-explanations. Computers and Education, 46, 426–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Schworm, S., & Renkl, A. (2007). Learning argumentation skills through the use of prompts for self-explaining examples. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99, 285-296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Stark, R. (1999). Lernen mit Lösungsbeispielen. Der Einfluß unvollständiger Lösungsschritte auf Beispielelaboration, Motivation und Lernerfolg [Learning by worked-out examples. The impact of incomplete solution steps on example elaboration, motivation, and learning outcomes]. Bern, CH: Huber.Google Scholar
  26. Sweller, J., & Cooper, G. A. (1985). The use of worked examples as a substitute for problem solving in learning algebra. Cognition & Instruction, 2, 59–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sweller, J., van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Paas, F. G. (1998). Cognitive architecture and instructional design. Educational Psychology Review, 10, 251–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tarmizi, R. A., & Sweller, J. (1988) Guidance during mathematical problem solving. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 424–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Trafton, J. G., & Reiser, B. J. (1993). The contributions of studying examples and solving problems to skill acquisition. In M. Polson (Ed.), Proceedings of the fifteenth annual conference of the cognitive science society (pp 1017–1022). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  30. VanLehn, K., & Jones, R. M. (1993a). Learning by explaining examples to oneself: A computational model. In S. Chipman & A. Meyrowitz (Eds.), Cognitive models of complex learning (pp 25–82). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic.Google Scholar
  31. VanLehn, K., & Jones, R. M. (1993b), Integration of analogical search control and explanation-based learning of correctness. In S. Minton (Ed.), Machine learning methods for planning (pp 273–315). Los Altos, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.Google Scholar
  32. Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (1990). Strategies for programming instruction in high school: Program completion vs. program generation. Journal of Computing Research, 6, 265–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & de Crook, M. B. M. (1992). Strategies for computer-based programming instruction: Program completion vs. program generation. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 8, 212–234.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Psychology in EducationArizona State UniversityTempeUSA
  2. 2.Psychological Institute, Educational PsychologyUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany

Personalised recommendations