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Table 1 Comparison of the prevalence and concentration of Second Generation Anticoagulant Rodenticide (SGAR) compounds in the livers of 241 Kestrels collected in England (N = 205), Wales (N = 1) and Scotland (N = 35) between 1997 and 2011

From: Annual abundance of common Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) is negatively associated with second generation anticoagulant rodenticides

SGAR compound Method Number (%) of Kestrels with detectable SGAR residues χ2-test statistics, prevalence Mean ± SE concentration (μg/g wet liver weight) t-test statistics, concentration
Brodifacoum HPLC 17 (11.1%) χ2 = 9.223, df = 1, p = 0.002 0.116 ± 0.033 t = 2.759, df = 38.753, p = 0.009
LCMS 24 (27.3%) 0.155 ± 0.077
Difenacoum HPLC 74 (48.4%) χ2 = 0.203, df = 1, p = 0.653 0.118 ± 0.024 t = 2.683, df = 92.190, p = 0.009
LCMS 46 (52.3%) 0.061 ± 0.016
Bromadialone HPLC 59 (38.6%) χ2 = 14.342, df = 1, p < 0.001 0.236 ± 0.035 t = 2.547, df = 106.020, p = 0.012
LCMS 57 (64.8%) 0.177 ± 0.033
Total SGAR HPLC 100 (65.4%) χ2 = 0.236, df = 1, p = 0.627 0.246 ± 0.031 t = 0.495, df = 108.600, p = 0.621
LCMS 61 (69.3%) 0.272 ± 0.049
  1. Significant differences are highlighted in bold. The analyses for the early part of the study (1997–2005 for Kestrels analysed by the Predatory Bird Monitoring Scheme and 1997–2002 for Kestrels analysed by Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture) used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; N = 153) and the analyses for the later part of the study used liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS; N = 88). The LCMS is a more sensitive method and has a lower level of detection. The mean concentrations presented are based on the unadjusted SGAR values for Kestrels with detected SGAR. The t-tests used the transformed values of concentration. For other results in this study, the LCMS concentrations were adjusted for limits of detection to be comparable with the HPLC concentration (see Methods and Results). Significant results are highlighted in bold.