Boric acid as reference substance for ecotoxicity tests in tropical artificial soil
Reference substances are recommended to evaluate the quality of laboratory test species and the reliability of ecotoxicity data. Boric acid (BA) has been recommended as reference substance in some standardized tests in OECD soil, but no data are available for Tropical Artificial Soil (TAS). For this purpose, avoidance tests with Eisenia andrei, lethality tests with E. andrei and Folsomia candida, and reproduction tests with E. andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus and F. candida were carried out in TAS (5% organic matter), following ISO guidelines, and compared between two laboratories. Collembolans were more sensitive than earthworms in lethality tests (LC50 = 342 and > 1000 mg kg−1, respectively). For both laboratories, the EC50 values were similar for reproduction of oligochaeta species (165 mg kg−1 for E. crypticus; 242 and 281 mg kg−1 for E. andrei), but significantly different for reproduction of F. candida (96 and 198 mg kg−1). Present results suggest that boric acid could replace the current pesticides recommended by ISO guidelines as reference substances on reproduction tests with soil invertebrates in TAS. Concerning avoidance tests, additional investigations should be performed with other substances that cause no neurotoxic effects on soil organisms.
KeywordsSoil invertebrates Soil ecotoxicology Reproduction tests Avoidance tests
The authors would like to thank the financial support of the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) by the financial support (Project CNPq Universal 454842/2014-7) and Brazilian Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) by doctoral fellowship. The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments that greatly contributed to improving the final version of the paper.
This study was funded by Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), Project CNPq Universal 454842/2014-7 for Julia Niemeyer; and Brazilian Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) by a doctoral fellowship for Letícia Scopel Camargo Carniel.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Dell Inc. (2015) Dell statistica (data analysis software system), version 13. software.dell.comGoogle Scholar
- Environmental Canada (2007) Biological test method: test for measuring survival and reproduction of springtails exposed to contaminants in soil. Environmental Technology Center. Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
- Garcia M (2004) Effects of pesticides on soil fauna: development of ecotoxicological test methods for tropical regions. Cuvillier Verlag, GottingenGoogle Scholar
- ISO - International Organization For Standardization (2008) ISO 17512-1: Soil quality—avoidance test for determinig the quality of soils and effects on behaviour—Part 1: test with earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei). ISO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- ISO - International Organization For Standardization (2011) ISO 11267: Soil quality—Inhibition of reproduction of Collembola (Folsomia candida) by soil contaminants. ISO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- ISO - International Organization For Standardization (2012a) ISO 11268-2: Soil quality—effects of pollutants on earthworms - Part 2: determination of effects on reproduction of Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei. ISO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- ISO - International Organization For Standardization (2012b) ISO 11268-1: effects of pollutants on earthworms—Part 1: determination of acute toxicity to Eisenia fetida/Eisenia andrei. ISO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- ISO - International Organization For Standardization (2014) ISO 16387: Soil quality—effects of contaminants on Enchytraeidae (Enchytraeus sp.)—Determination of effects on reproduction. ISO, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- Krogh PH (2009) Toxicity testing with the Collembolans Folsomia fimetaria and Folsomia candida and the results of a ringtest. Danish Ministry of the environment, environmental project No. 1256, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
- OECD - The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (1984) Test No. 208: terrestrial plant test: seedling emergence and seedling growth test. OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals Section 2: Effects on biotic systems. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
- OECD - Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2005) Guidance document on the validation and international acceptance of new or updated test methods for hazard assessment. OECD environment, health and safety publications, series on testing and assessment No. 34. ParisGoogle Scholar
- OECD - Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2008) Predatory mite (Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer) Reproduction test in soil. OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals No. 226. ParisGoogle Scholar
- OECD - The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (2009) Test No. 232: Collembolan reproduction test in soil. OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals Section 2. effects on biotic systems. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
- OECD - The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (2016) Test No. 226: Predatory mite (Hypoaspis (Geolaelaps) aculeifer) reproduction test in soil. OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Stantec, Aquaterra Environmental (2004) Developmental studies in support of environment Canada’s biological test methods for measuring soil toxicity using earthworms. Report prepared for the Method Development and Applications Section, Environmental Technology Centre, Environment Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar