, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 411–419 | Cite as

Selective toxicity of the mesoionic insecticide, triflumezopyrim, to rice planthoppers and beneficial arthropods

  • Jun Zhu
  • Yao Li
  • Hua Jiang
  • Chen Liu
  • Weiwei Lu
  • Wei Dai
  • Jianxiang Xu
  • Fang Liu


The novel mesoionic insecticide triflumezopyrim was highly effective in controlling both imidacloprid-susceptible and resistant planthopper populations in Malaysia. However, the toxicity of triflumezopyrim to planthopper populations and their natural enemies has been under-investigated in China. In this study, the median lethal concentrations (LC50) of triflumezopyrim were determined in eight field populations of Nilaparvata lugens and one population of Sogatella furcifera from China under laboratory conditions. Triflumezopyrim showed higher toxicity to planthopper populations than the commonly-used insecticide, imidacloprid. Furthermore, the lethal effect of triflumezopyrim on eight beneficial arthropods of planthoppers was investigated in the laboratory and compared with three commonly-used insecticides, thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin. Triflumezopyrim was harmless to Anagrus nilaparvatae, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis and Paederus fuscipes, while thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin were moderately harmful or harmful to the insect parasitoid and predators. Triflumezopyrim and thiamethoxam were harmless to the predatory spiders Pirata subpiraticus, Ummeliata insecticeps, Hylyphantes graminicola and Pardosa pseudoannulata, and slightly harmful to Theridion octomaculatum. Chlorpyrifos caused slight to high toxicity to four spider species except U. insecticeps. Abamectin was moderately to highly toxic to all five spider species. Our results indicate that triflumezopyrim has high efficacy for rice planthoppers populations and is compatibile with their natural enemies in China.


Mesoionic insecticide Triflumezopyrim Selective toxicity Rice planthoppers Beneficial arthropods 



This research was financially supported by the Jiangsu Agricultural Scientific Self-Innovation Fund (No. CX(15)1057) and the Fund of Science and Technology of Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China (No. BE2015342). We are grateful to Dupont Co, Ltd. for providing funds to conduct this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. Bliss CI (1935) The calculation of the dose-mortality curve. Ann Appl Biol 22:134–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cheng JA, He JH (1996) Rice insect pest. China Agricultural Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  3. Cordova D, Benner EA, Schroeder ME et al. (2016) Mode of action of triflumezopyrim: a novel mesoionic insecticide which inhibits the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 74:32–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deng L, Dai J, Cao H et al. (2007) Effects of methamidophos on the predating behavior of Hylyphantes graminicola (Sundevall) (Araneae: Linyphiidae). Environ Toxicol Chem 26:478–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Desneux N, Decourtye A, Delpuech JM (2007) The sublethal effects of pesticides on beneficial arthropods. Annu Rev Entomol 52:81–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Desneux N, Rafalimanana H, Kaiser L (2004) Dose–response relationship in lethal and behavioural effects of different insecticides on the parasitic was paphidius ervi. Chemosphere 54:619–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Endo S, Tsurumachi M (2001) Insecticide susceptibility of the brown planthopper and the white-backed planthopper collected from Southeast Asia. J Pestic Sci 26:82–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fukuda H, Nagata T (1969) Selective toxicity of several insecticides on three planthoppers. Jpn J Appl Entomol Zool 13:142–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Guruprasad GS, Pramesh D, Reddy BGM et al. (2016) Triflumezopyrim (DPX-RAB55): a novel promising insecitide for the management of plant hoppers in paddy. J Exp Zool India 19:955–961Google Scholar
  10. Hassan SA (1992) Guidelines for testing the effects of pesticides on beneficial organisms. IOBC/WPRS Bull. 1992/XV/3Google Scholar
  11. Haseeb M, Liu TX, Jones WA (2004) Effects of selected insecticides on Cotesia plutellae, endoparasitoid of Plutella xylostella. BioControl 49:33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Holyoke CW, Zhang W, Pahutski TF et al. (2015) Triflumezopyrim: discovery and optimization of a mesoionic insecticide for rice. ACS Symp Ser 1204:365–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Khush GS, Brar DS (1991) Genetics of resistance to insects in crop plants. Adv Agron 45:223–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lakshmi VJ, Krishnaiah NV, Pasalu IC (2006) Relative safety of selected acaricides to three hemipteran natural enemies of planthoppers in rice ecosystem. J Biol Control 20:141–146Google Scholar
  15. Li LY (1982) Integrated rice insect pest control in the Guangdong Province of China. Entomophaga 27:81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liu Z, Ye G, Hu C et al. (2001) Effects of Bt transgenic rice on population dynamics of main non-target insect pests and dominant spider species in rice paddies. Acta Phytophylacica Sin 29:138–144Google Scholar
  17. Lou YG, Cheng JA (2003) Role of rice volatiles in the foraging behaviour of the predator Cyrtorhinus lividipennis for the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Biocontrol 48:73–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Matsumura M, Takeuchi H, Satoh M et al. (2008) Species-specific insecticide resistance to imidacloprid and fipronil in the rice planthoppers Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera in East and South-east Asia. Pest Manag Sci 1121:1115–1121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ministry of Agriculture of China (2001) China Agriculture Yearbook 2001. China Agriculture Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  20. Nasir S, Akram W, Ahmed F (2012) The population dynamics, ecological and seasonal activity of Paederus fuscipes Curtis (Staphylinidae: Coleoptera) in the punjab, pakistan. Apcbee Procedia 4:36–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Preetha G, Stanley J, Suresh S et al. (2010) Risk assessment of insecticides used in rice on miridbug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter, the important predator of brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.). Chemosphere 80:498–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ruberson J, Nemoto H, Hirose Y (1998) Pesticides and conservation of natural enemies in pest management. Conserv Biol Control 1998:207–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shepar BM, Barrion AT, Litsinger JA (1995) Rice-feeding insects of tropical Asia. Rice-feeding insects of tropical AsiaGoogle Scholar
  24. Sukontason KL, Boonchu N, Sukontason K et al. (2004) Effects of eucalyptol on house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Rev Inst Med Trop S Paulo 46(2):97–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Thomson WT (1994) Agricultural chemicals book I-insecticides revision. Thomson Publications, FresnoGoogle Scholar
  26. Toriyama S (1986) Rice stripe virus: prototype of a new group of viruses that replicate in plants and insects. Microbiol Sci 3:347–351Google Scholar
  27. Wang C (2005) The toxicity determination of some pesticides on Paederus fuscipes. Chinese. Bull Entomol 42:654–656Google Scholar
  28. Wang HY, Yang Y, Su JY et al. (2008a) Assessment of the impact of insecticides on Anagrus nilaparvatae (Pang et Wang) (Hymenoptera: Mymanidae), an egg parasitoid of the rice planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Crop Prot 27:514–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang X, Jia J, Zhang Y et al. (2013) Laboratory safety evaluation of eight insecticides to two predating natural enemies Hylyphantes graminicola and Coleosoma octomaculatum. J Nanjing Agric Univ 36:53–58Google Scholar
  30. Wang Y, Chen J, Zhu YC et al. (2008b) Susceptibility to neonicotinoids and risk of resistance development in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Pest Manag Sci 1284:1278–1284Google Scholar
  31. Wang Z, Hong Y, Wang XJ et al. (2011) Population dynamics of Cyrtorhinus lividipennis (Reuter) in Karst rice-planting areas in Guizhou. Chin J Biol Control 27:464–469Google Scholar
  32. Zhang HM, Yang J, Chen JP et al. (2008) A black-streaked dwarf disease on rice in China is caused by a novel fijivirus. Arch Virol 153:1893–1898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang J, Hu C, Cheng X et al. (2011) Effects of 9 insecticides on killing spiders and controlling planthoppers. Plant Prot Jiangxi 34:107–110Google Scholar
  34. Zhang X, Xu Q, Lu W et al. (2015) Sublethal effects of four synthetic insecticides on the generalist predator Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. J Pest Sci 88:383–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang Y, Zhu Z, Lu X et al. (2014) Effects of two pesticides, TZP and JGM, on reproduction of three planthopper species, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, Sogatella furcifera Horvath, and Laodelphax striatella Fallén. Pestic Biochem Physiol 115:53–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhao SH (2000) Plant chemical protection. China Agriculture Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhao X, Yu R, Cang T et al. (2008) Effect of Nilaparvata lugens and Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter to Insecticide. Agrochemicals 47:0–2Google Scholar
  38. Zhou G, Wen J, Cai D et al. (2008) Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a new proposed Fijivirus species in the family Reoviridae. Chin Sci Bull 53:3677–3685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhou J, Xiao K, Wei B et al. (2014) Bioaccumulation of Cry1Ab protein from an herbivore reduces anti-oxidant enzyme activities in two spider species. PLoS One 9:e84724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhuang Y, Shen J, Chen Z (1999) The influence of triazophos on the productivity of the different wing-form brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stal). J Nanjing Agric Univ 22:21–24Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jun Zhu
    • 1
  • Yao Li
    • 1
  • Hua Jiang
    • 1
  • Chen Liu
    • 1
  • Weiwei Lu
    • 1
  • Wei Dai
    • 1
  • Jianxiang Xu
    • 1
  • Fang Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Horticulture and Plant ProtectionYangzhou UniversityYangzhouChina
  2. 2.Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture & Agri-Product SafetyYangzhou UniversityYangzhouChina
  3. 3.Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain CropsYangzhou UniversityYangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations