, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 122–131 | Cite as

Neonicotinoid insecticides in pollen, honey and adult bees in colonies of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in Egypt

  • Garry CodlingEmail author
  • Yahya Al Naggar
  • John P. Giesy
  • Albert J. Robertson


Honeybee losses have been attributed to multiple stressors and factors including the neonicotinoid insecticides (NIs). Much of the study of hive contamination has been focused upon temperate regions such as Europe, Canada and the United States. This study looks for the first time at honey, pollen and bees collected from across the Nile Delta in Egypt in both the spring and summer planting season of 2013. There is limited information upon the frequency of use of NIs in Egypt but the ratio of positive identification and concentrations of NIs are comparable to other regions. Metabolites of NIs were also monitored but given the low detection frequency, no link between matrices was possible in the study. Using a simple hazard assessment based upon published LD50 values for individual neonicotinoids upon the foraging and brood workers it was found that there was a potential risk to brood workers if the lowest reported LD50 was compared to the sum of the maximum NI concentrations. For non-lethal exposure there was significant risk at the worst case to brood bees but actual exposure effects are dependant upon the genetics and conditions of the Egyptian honeybee subspecies that remain to be determined.


Hazard assessment Agriculture Honey bees Metabolites Imidacloprid LD50 



The authors wish to acknowledge the support of grants Engineering Research Council of Canada (Project # 326415-07), Western Economic Diversification Canada (Project # 6578 and 6807), and an instrumentation grant from the Canada Foundation for Infrastructure and Meadow Ridge Enterprises LTD for providing apiaries and assistance with sampling and funding from the Saskatchewan Beekeepers Development Commission and Saskatchewan Agriculture through the Agriculture Development Commission to Dr. Albert Robertson.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical approval

The bees used in this study were handled under the ethical guidelines of Tanta University Egypt, and all handling of hives was performed under the guidance and supervision of professional apiarists.

Supplementary material

10646_2017_1876_MOESM1_ESM.docx (169 kb)
Supplementary Information


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Toxicology Centre, University of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Masaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic
  3. 3.Department of ZoologyFaculty of Science, Tanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  4. 4.Department of Veterinary Biomedical SciencesUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  5. 5.Department of Zoology, and Center for Integrative ToxicologyMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  6. 6.School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong KongHong KongChina
  7. 7.State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing UniversityNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  8. 8.Meadow Ridge Enterprises LTDSaskatoonCanada

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