Sensitivity of animals to chemical compounds links to metabolic rate
- 559 Downloads
Ecotoxicological studies have shown considerable variation in species sensitivity for chemical compounds, but general patterns in sensitivity are still not known. A better understanding of this sensitivity is important in the context of environmental risk assessment but also in a more general ecological and evolutionary one. We investigated the metabolic rate or more precise the specific somatic maintenance (expressed in J cm−3 d−1, at a standardised body temperature of 20 °C) on the sensitivity of a species to chemical poisoning. The sensitivity of a species was expressed in terms of its threshold concentration for survival, the no effect concentrations (NEC, in µmol/L). Somatic maintenance data were based on the ‘add-my-pet’ database hosted by the VU University of Amsterdam. NECs were derived from the US-EPA ECOTOX database. We focussed on four pesticides; two that need a metabolic activation, Chlorpyrifos and Malathion, and two without metabolic activation, carbofuran and carbaryl. All four pesticides showed a similar response: a strong negative correlation between the specific somatic maintenance and the NEC. We discuss possible explanations, deviations and ecological implications.
KeywordsSpecies sensitivity Biological traits Specific somatic maintenance No effect concentration Pesticides
The study was supported by the European Union Marie Curie Actions - Research Fellowship Programme 2012 (FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IEF), project acronym BIOME, contract no. 328931.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Add my pet (2014) http://www.bio.vu.nl/thb/deb/deblab/add_my_pet/Species.html
- ECHA (2008) Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment. Chapter R.10: characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for environment. European Chemicals AgencyGoogle Scholar
- ECOTOX User Guide: ECOTOXicology Database System. Version 4.0. http:/www.epa.gov/ecotox/ (2013) US EPA
- IPCS (1986a) Environmental health criteria 63, organophosphorous insecticides: a general introduction. International programme on chemical safety, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- IPCS (1986b) Environmental health criteria 64, carbamate pesticides: a general introduction. International programme on chemical safety, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- Kazemi M, Tahmasbi AM, Valizadeh R, Naserian AA, Soni A (2012) Organophosphate pesticides: a general review. Agri Sci Res J 2:512–522Google Scholar
- Kefford BJ, Palmer CG, Jooste S, Warne MSJ, Nugegoda D (2005) What is meant by “95 % of species”? An Argument for the Inclusion of Rapid Tolerance Testing. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 11:1024–1046Google Scholar
- Kooijman SALM (2010) Dynamic energy budget theory for metabolic organisation. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Newman MC, Ownby DR, Mezin L CA, Powell DC, Christensen TRL, Lerberg SB, Anderson B-A (2000) Applying species-sensitivity distributions in ecological risk assessment: assumptions of distribution type and sufficient numbers of species. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:508–515Google Scholar
- OECD (1998) Report of the OECD workshop on statistical analysis of aquatic toxicity data, vol 10. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
- OECD (2006) Current approaches in the statistical analysis of ecotoxicity data: a guidance to application, vol 54. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Posthuma L, Suter GW, Traas TP (2002) Species sensitivity distributions in ecotoxicology. CRC press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar