Advertisement

Ecotoxicology

, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 978–987 | Cite as

Distribution, potential source and ecotoxicological risk of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the surface water of the Three Gorges Dam region of the Yangtze River, China

  • Jing Ge
  • Xiaoyan Yun
  • Minxia Liu
  • Yuyi Yang
  • Miaomiao Zhang
  • Jun WangEmail author
Article

Abstract

Distributions, potential sources and ecotoxicological risks of PCBs and PBDEs in surface water of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) region (Yangtze River, China) were investigated. Samples were collected from 18 sites from upstream (UTGD) and downstream (DTGD) of the TGD. Thirty-two PCBs and ten PBDEs were analyzed. ΣPCBs from the UTGD and DTGD ranged from 10.6 to 26.1 and 1.7 to 29.8 ng L−1, respectively. ΣPBDEs from the UTGD and DTGD ranged from 2.0 to 17.6 and 0.8 to 11.1 ng L−1, respectively. The total concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs showed a declining trend from the UTGD to DTGD. Independent-samples t test analysis showed no statistical significance of ΣPCBs and ΣPBDEs between the UTGD and DTGD samples. Principal component analysis indicated the difference of potential sources and levels of PCBs and PBDEs in the study area. The potential eco-toxicological risk of PCBs in surface water of the TGD region is very low, whereas special attention needs to be paid to PBDEs in the study area.

Keywords

PCBs PBDEs Three Gorges Dam (TGD) Yangtze River Potential sources Eco-toxicological risk 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was funded by the “Hundred Talents Program”, the Knowledge Innovative Key Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences to Jun Wang (Y329671K01). Assistance was greatly appreciated from Ying Jiang in the core facility center.

Conflict of interest

None.

References

  1. Albina ML, Alonso V, Linares V, Belles M, Sirvent JJ, Domingo JL, Sanchez DJ (2010) Effects of exposure to BDE-99 on oxidative status of liver and kidney in adult rats. Toxicology 271(1–2):51–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alonso V, Linares V, Belles M, Albina ML, Pujol A, Domingo JL, Sanchez DJ (2010) Effects of BDE-99 on hormone homeostasis and biochemical parameters in adult male rats. Food Chem Toxicol 48(8–9):2206–2211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belles M, Alonso V, Linares V, Albina ML, Sirvent JJ, Domingo JL, Sanchez DJ (2010) Behavioral effects and oxidative status in brain regions of adult rats exposed to BDE-99. Toxicol Lett 194(1–2):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boas M, Feldt-Rasmussen U, Main KM (2012) Thyroid effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Mol Cell Endocrinol 355(2):240–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Branchi I, Capone F, Alleva E, Costa LG (2003) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers: neurobehavioral effects following developmental exposure. NeuroToxicology 24(3):449–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Canadian Environmental Protection (2013) Federal environmental quality guidelines polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)Google Scholar
  7. Cetin B, Odabasi M (2007) Particle-phase dry deposition and air/soil gas-exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Izmir, Turkey. Environ Sci Technol 41(14):4986–4992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chai C, Yu Z, Shen Z, Song X, Cao X, Yao Y (2009) Nutrient characteristics in the Yangtze River estuary and the adjacent East China Sea before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam. Sci Total Environ 407(16):4687–4695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen X, Yan Y, Fu R, Dou X, Zhang E (2008) Sediment transport from the Yangtze River, China, into the sea over the post-Three Gorges Dam period: a discussion. Quatern Int 186:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen MY, Yu M, Luo XJ, Chen SJ, Mai BX (2011) The factors controlling the partitioning of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in the water-column of the Pearl River estuary in south China. Mar Pollut Bull 62(1):29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Costa LG, Giordano G, Tagliaferri S, Caglieri A, Mutti A (2008) Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants: environmental contamination, human body burden and potential adverse health effects. Acta Biomed 79(3):172–183Google Scholar
  12. Covaci A, Harrad S, Abdallah MA, Ali N, Law RJ, Herzke D, de Wit CA (2011) Novel brominated flame retardants: a review of their analysis, environmental fate and behaviour. Environ Int 37(2):532–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Darnerud P (2003) Toxic effects of brominated flame retardants in man and in wildlife. Environ Int 29(6):841–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. de Wit CA (2002) An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment. Chemosphere 46(5):583–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Diamond ML, Melymuk L, Csiszar SA, Robson M (2010) Estimation of PCB stocks, emissions, and urban fate: will our policies reduce concentrations and exposure? Environ Sci Technol 44(8):2777–2783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Domingo JL (2012) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in food and human dietary exposure: a review of the recent scientific literature. Food Chem Toxicol 50(2):238–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Du RX, Fan ZX, Guo DF, Cai LJ, Ding HF, Bi YP (2008) Analysis on existence level of polychlorinated biphenyl in water environment in China. China Saf Sci J 18(9):16–21 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  18. Duan X, Li Y, Li X, Li M, Zhang D (2013) Distributions and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls in the coastal East China Sea sediments. Sci Total Environ 463–464:894–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Frederiksen M, Vorkamp K, Thomsen M, Knudsen LE (2009) Human internal and external exposure to PBDEs: a review of levels and sources. Int J Hyg Environ Health 212(2):109–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frouin H, Dangerfield N, Macdonald RW, Galbraith M, Crewe N, Shaw P, Mackas D, Ross PS (2013) Partitioning and bioaccumulation of PCBs and PBDEs in marine plankton from the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Prog Oceanogr 115:65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ge J, Woodward L, Li Q, Wang J (2013) Distribution, sources and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils from the Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean. PLoS One 8:e71521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gioia R, Nizzetto L, Lohmann R, Dachs J, Temme C, Jones KC (2008) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air and seawater of the Atlantic Ocean: sources, trends and processes. Environ Sci Technol 42(5):1416–1422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grant PB, Johannessen SC, Macdonald RW, Yunker MB, Sanborn M, Dangerfield N, Wright C, Ross PS (2011) Environmental fractionation of PCBs and PBDEs during particle transport as recorded by sediments in coastal waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 30(7):1522–1532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hong SH, Yim UH, Shim WJ, Oh JR (2005) Congener-specific survey for polychlorinated biphenlys in sediments of industrialized bays in Korea: regional characteristics and pollution sources. Environ Sci Technol 39(19):7380–7388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ikonomou MG, Rayne S, Addison RF (2002) Exponential increases of the brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in the Canadian Arctic from 1981 to 2000. Environ Sci Technol 36(9):1886–1892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kim UJ, Kim HY, Alvarez D, Lee IS, Oh JE (2013) Using SPMDs for monitoring hydrophobic organic compounds in urban river water in Korea compared with using conventional water grab samples. Sci Total Environ 470–471:1537–1544Google Scholar
  27. Kumar B, Singh SK, Verma VK, Gaur R, Kumar S, Sharma CS (2014) A preliminary assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface waters. Adv Appl Sci Res 5(1):111–117Google Scholar
  28. La Guardia MJ, Hale RC, Harvey E (2006) Detailed polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener composition of the widely used penta-, octa-, and deca-PBDE technical flame-retardant mixtures. Environ Sci Technol 40(20):6247–6254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Labadie P, Tlili K, Alliot F, Bourges C, Desportes A, Chevreuil M (2010) Development of analytical procedures for trace-level determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and tetrabromobisphenol A in river water and sediment. Anal Bioanal Chem 396(2):865–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Law R (2003) Levels and trends of polybrominated diphenylethers and other brominated flame retardants in wildlife. Environ Int 29(6):757–770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. MEP P.R. China (Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People’s Republic of China) (2002) Environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002) (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  32. Muller B, Berg M, Yao ZP, Zhang XF, Wang D, Pfluger A (2008) How polluted is the Yangtze river? water quality downstream from the Three Gorges Dam. Sci Total Environ 402(2–3):232–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Munschy C, Heas-Moisan K, Tixier C, Boulesteix L, Morin J (2011) Classic and novel brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in common sole (Solea solea L.) from main nursery zones along the French coasts. Sci Total Environ 409(21):4618–4627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nouira T, Risso C, Chouba L, Budzinski H, Boussetta H (2013) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (pbdes) in surface sediments from Monastir bay (Tunisia, Central Mediterranean): occurrence, distribution and seasonal variations. Chemosphere 93(3):487–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Oros DR, Hoover D, Rodigari F, Crane D, Sericano J (2005) Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water, surface sediments, and bivalves from the San Francisco estuary. Environ Sci Technol 39(1):33–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pessah IN, Cherednichenko G, Lein PJ (2010) Minding the calcium store: ryanodine receptor activation as a convergent mechanism of PCB toxicity. Pharmacol Ther 125(2):260–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Robertson LW, Ludewig G (2011) Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs. Gefahrst Reinhalt Luft 71(1–2):25–32Google Scholar
  38. Rotander A, van Bavel B, Polder A, Riget F, Auethunsson GA, Gabrielsen GW, Vikingsson G, Bloch D, Dam M (2012) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Arctic and North Atlantic regions, 1986–2009. Environ Int 40:102–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Safe S (1989) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Mutat Res 220(1):31–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schantz SL, Widholm JJ, Rice DC (2003) Effects of PCB exposure on neuropsychological function in children. Environ Health Perspect 111(3):357–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. ter Schure A, Larsson P, Agrell C, Boon JP (2004) Atmospheric transport of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls to the Baltic Sea. Environ Sci Technol 38(5):1282–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tseng LH, Lee CW, Pan MH, Tsai SS, Li MH, Chen JR, Lay JJ, Hsu PC (2006) Postnatal exposure of the male mouse to 2,2′,3,3′,4,4′,5,5′,6,6′-decabrominated diphenyl ether: decreased epididymal sperm functions without alterations in DNA content and histology in testis. Toxicology 224(1–2):33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. U.S. EPA (2009) National primary drinking water regulations. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D CGoogle Scholar
  44. Van Ael E, Covaci A, Blust R, Bervoets L (2012) Persistent organic pollutants in the Scheldt estuary: environmental distribution and bioaccumulation. Environ Int 48:17–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Van den Berg M, Birnbaum LS, Denison M, Vito MD, Farland W, Feeley M, Fiedler H, Hakansson H, Hanberg A, Haws L, Rose M, Safe S, Schrenk D, Tohyama C, Tritscher A, Tuomisto J, Tysklind M, Walker N, Peterson RE (2006) The 2005 World Health Organization re-evaluation of human and mammalian toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol Sci 93:223–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang ZY, Li Y, He Y (2007) Sediment budget of the Yangtze River. Water Resour Res 43(4):W04401. doi: 10.1029/2006WR005012 Google Scholar
  47. Watanabe I (2003) Environmental release and behavior of brominated flame retardants. Environ Int 29(6):665–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Webster L, Russell M, Walsham P, Moffat C (2006) A review of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in the aquatic environment and development of an analytical technique for their analysis in environmental samples. Fisheries Research Services, Marine Laboratory, AberdeenGoogle Scholar
  49. Xu K, Milliman JD (2009) Seasonal variations of sediment discharge from the Yangtze River before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam. Geomorphology 104:276–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Yang SL, Zhang J, Xu XJ (2007) Influence of the Three Gorges Dam on downstream delivery of sediment and its environmental implications. Geophys Res Lett 34:L10401. doi: 10.1029/2007GL029472 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zhang Z, Liu L, Li Y, Wang D, Jia H (2008) Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in concurrently sampled Chinese air and surface soil. Environ Sci Technol 42(17):6514–6518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhang W, Cai Y, Sheng G, Chen D, Fu J (2011) Tissue distribution of decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) and its metabolites in sucking rat pups after prenatal and/or postnatal exposure. Toxicology 283(1):49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhang L, Li J, Zhao Y, Li X, Wen S, Shen H, Wu Y (2013) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods from China: levels, dietary intake, and risk assessment. J Agr Food Chem 61(26):6544–6551CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing Ge
    • 1
  • Xiaoyan Yun
    • 1
  • Minxia Liu
    • 1
  • Yuyi Yang
    • 1
  • Miaomiao Zhang
    • 1
  • Jun Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical GardenChinese Academy of SciencesWuhanChina

Personalised recommendations