Effects of two fungicides, copper and dimethomorph ((E,Z)4-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(3-4dimethoxyphenyl) acryloyl] morpholine) on Lemna minor growth and phytoremediation were evaluated. The toxicity of copper and dimethomorph alone and in combination, was assessed by growth inhibition of L. minor cultures after 96 and 168 h. Copper had a severe impact on growth (max. inhibition: 90 % at 1,000 μg L−1) while dimethomorph (as pure ingredient or formulated as Forum) did not (inhibition <45 % at 1,000 μg L−1) after 168 h of treatment. When both chemicals were combined, synergism was observed after 96 h of exposure to copper and Forum. However, this interaction was a simple additivity after 168 h. Additivity was also observed when the pure active ingredient (dimethomorph) replaced Forum in the mixture of copper and dimethomorph at 96 and 168 h. L. minor showed an excellent performance in removing copper from the medium since after 96 h, 36, 60, and 76 % removal were reached for 10, 20, and 30 μg L−1 of Cu respectively. Copper accumulated in the plants. The removal of copper increased with Forum concentration. After 96 h copper (10 μg L−1 initial concentration) elimination increased from 36.39 ± 5.86–60.70 ± 6.06 % when Forum concentration increased from 0 to 500 μg L−1. Accumulation of copper in plants was also increased by Forum but not by the active ingredient alone. Depuration of Forum by L. minor varied between 10 and 40 % after 96 h and it was generally more efficient than that of the pure ingredient. This depuration decreased in the presence of copper possibly due to the metal toxicity.
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Senior author is grateful to PROFAS cooperation for providing financial support though the BAF (Bourse Algéro-Française) fellowship. Thanks to BASF France, Ecully, for the generous gift of dimethomorph active ingredient. This research is part of the AQUAL program, financed by the French Ministry for Research and the European Fund for Regional Development (FEDER). The authors acknowledge the help of Laurence Delahaut in copper analysis. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Part of this work was presented as at the 61st International Symposium on Crop Protection on May 19, 2009 in Gent, Belgium. As such, it was published in part as an extended summary in the proceedings of the conference.
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Megateli, S., Dosnon-Olette, R., Trotel-Aziz, P. et al. Simultaneous effects of two fungicides (copper and dimethomorph) on their phytoremediation using Lemna minor . Ecotoxicology 22, 683–692 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-013-1060-2
- Aquatic plants
- Metal–fungicide interactions
- Water quality