Skip to main content

Simultaneous effects of two fungicides (copper and dimethomorph) on their phytoremediation using Lemna minor

Abstract

Effects of two fungicides, copper and dimethomorph ((E,Z)4-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(3-4dimethoxyphenyl) acryloyl] morpholine) on Lemna minor growth and phytoremediation were evaluated. The toxicity of copper and dimethomorph alone and in combination, was assessed by growth inhibition of L. minor cultures after 96 and 168 h. Copper had a severe impact on growth (max. inhibition: 90 % at 1,000 μg L−1) while dimethomorph (as pure ingredient or formulated as Forum) did not (inhibition <45 % at 1,000 μg L−1) after 168 h of treatment. When both chemicals were combined, synergism was observed after 96 h of exposure to copper and Forum. However, this interaction was a simple additivity after 168 h. Additivity was also observed when the pure active ingredient (dimethomorph) replaced Forum in the mixture of copper and dimethomorph at 96 and 168 h. L. minor showed an excellent performance in removing copper from the medium since after 96 h, 36, 60, and 76 % removal were reached for 10, 20, and 30 μg L−1 of Cu respectively. Copper accumulated in the plants. The removal of copper increased with Forum concentration. After 96 h copper (10 μg L−1 initial concentration) elimination increased from 36.39 ± 5.86–60.70 ± 6.06 % when Forum concentration increased from 0 to 500 μg L−1. Accumulation of copper in plants was also increased by Forum but not by the active ingredient alone. Depuration of Forum by L. minor varied between 10 and 40 % after 96 h and it was generally more efficient than that of the pure ingredient. This depuration decreased in the presence of copper possibly due to the metal toxicity.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Albert G, Curtze J, Drandarevski CA (1988) Dimethomorph (CME151), a novel curative fungicide. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference. Pests Dis 1:17–24

    Google Scholar 

  2. Babu TS, Akthar TA, Lampi MA, Tripuranthakam S, Dixon DG, Greenberg BM (2003) Similar stress responses are elicited by copper and ultraviolet radiation in the aquatic plant Lemna gibba: Implication of reactive oxygen species as common signals. Plant Cell Physiol 44:1320–1329

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Besnard E, Chenu C, Robert M (2001) Influence of organic amendments on copper distribution among particle-size and density fractions in Champagne vineyard soils. Environ Pollut 112:329–337

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Böttcher T, Schroll R (2007) The fate of isoproturon in a freshwater microcosm with Lemna minor as a model organism. Chemosphere 66:684–689

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bouldin JL, Farris JL, Moore M, Smith S Jr, Cooper CM (2006) Hydroponic uptake of atrazine and lambda-cyhalothrinin Juncus effusus and Ludwigia peploides. Chemosphere 65:1049–1057

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Cedergreen N, Andersen L, Olesen CF, Spliid HH, Streibig JC (2005) Does the effect of herbicide pulse exposure on aquatic plants depend on Kow or mode of action? Aquat Toxicol 71:261–271

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Chollet R (1993) Screening inhibitors (antimetabolites) of the biosynthesis or function of amino acids or vitamins with Lemna assay. In: Böger P, Sandmann G (eds) Target assays for modern herbicides and related phytotoxic compounds. Lewis Publisher, Boca Raton, pp 143–149

    Google Scholar 

  8. Cunningham SD, Berti WR, Huang JW (1995) Phytoremediation of contaminated soils. Trends Biotechnol 13:393–397

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Dhir B, Sharmila P, Saradhi PP (2009) Potential of aquatic macrophytes for removing contaminants from the environment. Crit Rev Environ Sci Tech 39:754–781

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Dosnon-Olette R, Couderchet M, El Arfaoui A, Sayen S, Eullaffroy P (2010a) Influence of initial pesticide concentrations and plant population density on dimethomorph toxicity and removal by two duckweed species. Sci Total Environ 408:2254–2259

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Dosnon-Olette R, Trotel-Aziz P, Couderchet M, Eullaffroy P (2010b) Fungicides and herbicide removal in Scenedesmus cell suspensions. Chemosphere 79:117–123

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Dosnon-Olette R, Schröder P, Bartha B, Aziz A, Couderchet M, Eullaffroy P (2011) Enzymatic basis for fungicide removal by Elodea canadensis. Environ Sci Pollut R 18:1015–1021

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Drost W, Matzke M, Backhaus T (2007) Heavy metal toxicity to Lemna minor: studies on the time dependence of growth inhibition and the recovery after exposure. Chemosphere 67:36–43

    Google Scholar 

  14. Frankart C, Eullaffoy P, Vernet G (2002) Photosynthetic responses of Lemna minor exposed to xenobiotics, copper, and their combinations. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 53:439–445

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Gatidou G, Thomaidis NS (2007) Evaluation of single and joint toxic effects of two antifouling biocides, their main metabolites and copper using phytoplankton bioassays. Aquat Toxicol 85:184–191

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Gisi U (1996) Synergistic interaction of fungicides in mixtures. Phytopathology 86:1273–1279

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Gisi U, Sierotzky H (2008) Fungicide modes of action and resistance in downy mildews. Eur J Plant Pathol 122:157–167

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Hernández-Soriano MDC, Degryse F, Smolders E (2011) Mechanisms of enhanced mobilisation of trace metals by anionic surfactants in soil. Environ Pollut 159:809–815

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. IFEN (2006) Les pesticides dans l’eau. Données de 2003 et 2004. Rapport N°5 de l’Institut Français de l’Environnement, Paris, 15p

  20. Jonker MJ, Piskiewicz AM, Castella NII, Kammenga JE (2004) Toxicity of binary mixtures of cadmium–copper and carbendazim-copper to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:1529–1537

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Kamal M, Ghaly AE, Mahmoud N, Côté R (2004) Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals by aquatic plant. Environ Int 29:1029–1039

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Khellaf N, Zerdaoui M (2010) Growth response of the duckweed Lemna gibba L. to copper and nickel phytoaccumulation. Ecotoxicology 19:1363–1368

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Liu TF, Sun C, Ta N, Hong J, Yang SG, Chen CX (2007) Effect of copper on the degradation of pesticides cypermethrin and cyhalothrin. J Environ Sci 19:1235–1238

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants, 2nd edn. Academic Press, San Diego 889p

    Google Scholar 

  25. Megateli S, Olette R, Semsari S, Couderchet M (2009a) Toxicity of copper/dimethomorph combination for Lemna minor and depuration of the fungicides by aquatic plant. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 74:923–932

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Megateli S, Semsari S, Couderchet M (2009b) Toxicity and removal of heavy metals (cadmium, copper, and zinc) by Lemna gibba. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:1774–1780

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Miretzky P, Saralegui A, Fernandez Cirelli A (2006) Simultaneous heavy metal removal mechanism by dead macrophytes. Chemosphere 62:247–254

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Mishra VK, Tripathi BD (2008) Concurrent removal and accumulation of heavy metals by three aquatic macrophytes. Bioresour Technol 99:7091–7097

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Olette R, Couderchet M, Biangianti S, Eullaffroy P (2008) Toxicity and removal of pesticides by selected aquatic plants. Chemosphere 70:1414–1421

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Panemangalore M, Bebe FN (2005) Interaction between pesticides and essential metal Copper increases the accumulation of Copper in the kidneys of rats. Biol Trace Elem Res 108:169–184

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Pilon-Smits E (2005) Phytoremediation. Annu Rev Plant Biol 56:15–39

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Rai PK (2009) Heavy metal phytoremediation from aquatic ecosystems with special reference to macrophytes. Crit Rev Env Sci Tec 39:697–753

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. Reinhold D, Vishwanathan S, Park JJ, Oha D, Saunders FM (2010) Assessment of plant-driven removal of emerging organic pollutants by duckweed. Chemosphere 80:687–692

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Schröder P, Collins C (2002) Conjugating enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism of organic xenobiotics in plants. Int J Phytoremediat 4:247–265

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Teisseire H, Couderchet M, Vernet G (1998) Toxic responses and catalase activity of Lemna minor L. exposed to folpet, copper, and their combination. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 40:194–200

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Teisseire H, Couderchet M, Vernet G (1999) Phytotoxicity of diuron alone and in combination with folpet on duckweed (Lemna minor). Environ Pollut 106:39–45

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Tilton FA, Tilton SC, Bammler TK, Beyer RP, Stapleton PL, Scholz NL, Gallagher EP (2011) Transcriptional impact of organophosphate and metal mixtures on olfaction: Copper dominates the chlorpyrifos-induced response in adult zebrafish. Aquat Toxicol 102:205–215

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. Verdisson S, Couderchet M, Vernet G (2001) Effects of procymidone, fludioxonil and pyrimethanil on two non-target aquatic plants. Chemosphere 44:467–475

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Walker CH, Hopkin SP, Sibly RM, Peakall DB (2006) Principles of Ecotoxicology (3rd ed) CRC Press, Boca Raton, 315p

  40. Wang W (1990) Literature review on Duckweed toxicity testing. Environ Res 52:7–22

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Weckx JEJ, Clijsters HMM (1996) Oxidative damage and defense mechanisms in primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris as a result of root assimilation of toxic amounts of copper. Physiol Plant 96:506–512

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Zabkiewicz JA (2000) Adjuvant and herbicidal efficacy, present status and future prospects. Weed Res 40:139–149

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

Senior author is grateful to PROFAS cooperation for providing financial support though the BAF (Bourse Algéro-Française) fellowship. Thanks to BASF France, Ecully, for the generous gift of dimethomorph active ingredient. This research is part of the AQUAL program, financed by the French Ministry for Research and the European Fund for Regional Development (FEDER). The authors acknowledge the help of Laurence Delahaut in copper analysis. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michel Couderchet.

Additional information

Part of this work was presented as at the 61st International Symposium on Crop Protection on May 19, 2009 in Gent, Belgium. As such, it was published in part as an extended summary in the proceedings of the conference.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOC 130 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Megateli, S., Dosnon-Olette, R., Trotel-Aziz, P. et al. Simultaneous effects of two fungicides (copper and dimethomorph) on their phytoremediation using Lemna minor . Ecotoxicology 22, 683–692 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-013-1060-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Aquatic plants
  • Depuration
  • Metal–fungicide interactions
  • Synergism
  • Toxicity
  • Water quality