, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 109–117 | Cite as

Assessing bioavailability and toxicity of permethrin and DDT in sediment using matrix solid phase microextraction



Matrix solid phase microextraction (matrix-SPME) was evaluated as a surrogate for the absorbed dose in organisms to estimate bioavailability and toxicity of permethrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in laboratory-spiked sediment. Sediments were incubated for 7, 28, and 90 days at room temperature to characterize the effect of aging on bioavailability and toxicity. Sediment toxicity was assessed using two freshwater invertebrates, the midge Chironomus dilutus and amphipod Hyalella azteca. Disposable polydimethylsiloxane fibers were used to estimate the absorbed dose in organisms and to examine bioavailability and toxicity. The equilibrium fiber concentrations substantially decreased with an increase in sediment aging time, indicating a reduction in bioavailability. Based on median lethal fiber concentrations (fiber LC50), toxicity of permethrin was not significantly different among the different aging times. Due to the substantial degradation of DDT to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) in sediment, sediment toxicity to C. dilutus increased, while it decreased for H. azteca with extended aging times. A toxic unit-based fiber LC50 value represented the DDT mixture (DDT and DDD) toxicity for both species. Significant linear relationships were found between organism body residues and the equilibrium fiber concentrations for each compound, across aging times. The study suggested that the matrix-SPME fibers mimicked bioaccumulation in the organisms, and enabled estimation of body residues, and could potentially be used in environmental risk assessment across matrices (e.g. sediment and water) to measure bioavailability and toxicity of hydrophobic pesticides.


Bioavailability Toxicity Pesticide Matrix solid phase microextraction Chironomus dilutus Hyalella azteca 

Supplementary material

10646_2012_1007_MOESM1_ESM.doc (52 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 52 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, Department of ZoologySouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina

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