Ecotoxicology

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 109–117 | Cite as

Assessing bioavailability and toxicity of permethrin and DDT in sediment using matrix solid phase microextraction

Article

Abstract

Matrix solid phase microextraction (matrix-SPME) was evaluated as a surrogate for the absorbed dose in organisms to estimate bioavailability and toxicity of permethrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in laboratory-spiked sediment. Sediments were incubated for 7, 28, and 90 days at room temperature to characterize the effect of aging on bioavailability and toxicity. Sediment toxicity was assessed using two freshwater invertebrates, the midge Chironomus dilutus and amphipod Hyalella azteca. Disposable polydimethylsiloxane fibers were used to estimate the absorbed dose in organisms and to examine bioavailability and toxicity. The equilibrium fiber concentrations substantially decreased with an increase in sediment aging time, indicating a reduction in bioavailability. Based on median lethal fiber concentrations (fiber LC50), toxicity of permethrin was not significantly different among the different aging times. Due to the substantial degradation of DDT to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) in sediment, sediment toxicity to C. dilutus increased, while it decreased for H. azteca with extended aging times. A toxic unit-based fiber LC50 value represented the DDT mixture (DDT and DDD) toxicity for both species. Significant linear relationships were found between organism body residues and the equilibrium fiber concentrations for each compound, across aging times. The study suggested that the matrix-SPME fibers mimicked bioaccumulation in the organisms, and enabled estimation of body residues, and could potentially be used in environmental risk assessment across matrices (e.g. sediment and water) to measure bioavailability and toxicity of hydrophobic pesticides.

Keywords

Bioavailability Toxicity Pesticide Matrix solid phase microextraction Chironomus dilutus Hyalella azteca 

Supplementary material

10646_2012_1007_MOESM1_ESM.doc (52 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 52 kb)

References

  1. Abbott WS (1925) A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol 18:265–267Google Scholar
  2. Alexander M (2000) Aging, bioavailability, and overestimation of risk from environmental pollutants. Environ Sci Technol 34:4259–4265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amweg EL, Weston DP, Ureda NM (2005) Use and toxicity of pyrethroid pesticides in the central valley, California, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 24:966–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson J, Birge W, Gentile J, Lake J, Rodgers J, Swartz RC (1987) Biological effects, bioaccumulation and ecotoxicology of sediment-associated chemicals. In: Dickson KL, Maki AW, Brungs WA (eds) Fate and effects of sediment-bound chemicals in aquatic systems. Pergamon Press, Elmsford, pp 267–296Google Scholar
  5. Bruijn DJ, Busser F, Seinen W, Hermens J (1989) Determination of octanol/water partition coefficients for hydrophobic organic chemicals with the “slow-stirring” method. Environ Toxicol Chem 8:499–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Canton JH, Adema DMM (1978) Reproducibility of short term and reproduction toxicity experiments with Daphnia magna and comparison of the sensitivity of Daphnia magna with Daphnia pulex and Daphnia cucullata in short term experiments. Hydrobiologia 59:135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Conder JM, Lotufo GR, Bowen AT, Turner PK, La Point TW, Steevens JA (2004) Solid phase microextraction fibers for estimating the toxicity of nitroaromatic compounds. Aquat Ecosys Health Manag 7:387–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ding Y, Harwood AD, Foslund HM, Lydy MJ (2010) Distribution and toxicity of sediment-associated pesticides in urban and agricultural waterways from Illinois, USA. Environ Toxicol Chem 29:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ding Y, Landrum PF, You J, Harwood AD, Lydy MJ (2012a) Use of solid phase microextraction to estimate toxicity: I relating fiber concentrations to toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 31(9):2159–2167Google Scholar
  10. Ding Y, Landrum PF, You J, Harwood AD, Lydy MJ (2012b) Use of solid phase microextraction to estimate toxicity: II relating fiber concentrations to body residues. Environ Toxicol Chem 31(9):2168–2174Google Scholar
  11. Ehlers GAC, Loibner AP (2006) Linking organic pollutant (bio)availability with geosorbent properties and biomimetic methodology: a review of geosorbent characterization and (bio)availability prediction. Environ Pollut 141:494–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Folch J, Lees M, Stanley GHS (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Bio Chem 226:497–509Google Scholar
  13. Forstner U (1987) Sediment-associated contaminants: an overview of scientific bases for developing remedial options. Hydrobiology 149:221–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Harwood AD, You J, Lydy MJ (2009) Temperature as a toxicity identification evaluation tool for pyrethroid insecticides: toxicokinetic confirmation. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:1051–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hoke RA (1997) Equilibrium partitioning as the basis for an integrated laboratory and field assessment of the impacts of DDT, DDE and DDD in sediments. Ecotoxicology 6:101–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hunter W, Xu Y, Spurlock F, Gan J (2008) Using disposable polydimethylsiloxane fibers to assess the bioavailability of permethrin in sediment. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:568–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kraaij R, Mayer P, Busser FJM, van het Bolscher M, Seinen W, Tolls J, Belfroid A (2003) Measured pore water concentrations make equilibrium partitioning work—a data analysis. Environ Sci Technol 37:268–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Landrum PF (1989) Bioavailability and toxicokinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons sorbed to sediments for the amphipod Pontoporeia hoyi. Environ Sci Technol 23:588–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Landrum PF, Robbins JA (1990) Bioavailability of sediment-associated contaminants to benthic invertebrates in sediments: chemistry and toxicity of in-place pollutants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 237–263Google Scholar
  20. Landrum PF, Robinson SD, Gossiaux DC, You J, Lydy MJ, Mitra S, Hulscher T (2007) Predicting bioavailability of sediment-associated organic contaminants for Diporeia spp. and Oligochaetes. Environ Sci Technol 41:6442–6447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Leslie HA, Kraak M, Hermens JLM (2004) Chronic toxicity and body residues of the non-polar narcotic 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in Chironomus riparius. Environ Toxicol Chem 23:2022–2028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lotufo GR, Landrum PF, Gedeon ML, Tigue EA, Herche LR (2000) Comparative toxicity and toxicokinetics of DDT and its major metabolites in freshwater amphipods. Environ Toxicol Chem 19:368–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lotufo GR, Landrum PF, Gedeon ML (2001a) Toxicity and bioaccumulation of DDT in freshwater amphipods in exposures to spiked sediments. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:810–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lotufo GR, Farrar JD, Duke BM, Bridges TS (2001b) DDT toxicity and critical body residue in the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus in exposures to spiked sediment. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 41:142–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maruya KA, Landrum PF, Burgess RM, Shine JP (2012) Incorporating contaminant bioavailability into sediment quality assessment frameworks. Integr Environ Assess Manag 8:659–673Google Scholar
  26. Mayer P, Vaes W, Wijnker F, Legierse K, Kraaij R, Tolls J, Hermens JLM (2000) Sensing dissolved sediment porewater concentrations of persistent and bioaccumulative pollutants using disposable solid-phase microextraction fibers. Environ Sci Technol 34:5177–5183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mehler WT, Li H, Pang J, Sun B, Lydy MJ, You J (2011) Bioavailability of hydrophobic organic contaminants in sediment with different particle size distributions. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 61:74–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nebeker AV, Shuytema GS, Griffis WL, Barbitter JA, Carey LA (1986) Effect of sediment organic carbon on survival of Hyalella azteca exposed to DDT and endrin. Environ Toxicol Chem 8:705–718Google Scholar
  29. Pehkonen S, You J, Akkanen J, Kukkonen JVK, Lydy MJ (2010) Influence of black carbon and chemical planarity on bioavailability of sediment-associated contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 29:1976–1983Google Scholar
  30. Phipps GL, Mattson VR, Ankley GT (1995) Relative sensitivity of three freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates to 10 contaminants. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 28:281–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Reid BJ, Jones KC, Semple KT (2000) Bioavailability of persistent organic pollutants in soils and sediments—a perspective on mechanisms, consequences and assessment. Environ Pollut 108:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Trimble AJ (2009) Determining the occurrence, fate, and effects of pesticide mixtures using the aquatic amphipod Hyalella azteca. Dissertation, Southern Illinois University CarbondaleGoogle Scholar
  33. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Methods for measuring the toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants with freshwater invertebrates, 2nd ed, EPA 600/R-99/064. Office of Research and Development, DuluthGoogle Scholar
  34. van der Wal L, Jager T, Fleuren RHL, Barendregt A, Sinnige TL, van Gestel CAM, Hermens JLM (2004) Soild-phase microextraction to predict bioavailaibility of organic micropollutants in terrestrial organisms after exposure to a field-contaminated soil. Environ Sci Technol 38:4842-4848Google Scholar
  35. van Handel E (1985) Rapid determination of total lipid in mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 1:302–304Google Scholar
  36. Weston DP, You J, Lydy MJ (2004) Distribution and toxicity of sediment-associated pesticides in agriculture-dominated water bodies of California’s Central Valley. Environ Sci Technol 38:2752–2759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xu Y, Spurlock F, Wang Z, Gan J (2007) Comparison of five methods for measuring sediment toxicity of hydrophobic contaminants. Environ Sci Technol 41:8394–8399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. You J, Lydy MJ, Landrum PF (2006) Comparison of chemical approaches for assessing bioavailability of sediment-associated contaminants. Environ Sci Technol 40:6348–6353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. You J, Pehkonen S, Landrum PF, Lydy MJ (2007) Desorption of hydrophobic compounds from laboratory-spiked sediments measured by Tenax absorbent and matrix-solid phase microextraction. Environ Sci Technol 41:5672–5678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. You J, Brennan AA, Lydy MJ (2009) Bioavailability and biotransformation of sediment-associated pyrethroid insecticides in Lumbriculus variegatus. Chemosphere 75:1477–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, Department of ZoologySouthern Illinois UniversityCarbondaleUSA
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations