, Volume 21, Issue 7, pp 1889–1898 | Cite as

Short-term and transgenerational effects of the neonicotinoid nitenpyram on susceptibility to insecticides in two whitefly species

  • Pei Liang
  • Yu-An Tian
  • Antonio Biondi
  • Nicolas Desneux
  • Xi-Wu Gao


The cosmopolitan silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci which had coexisted with Trialeurodes vaporariorum in Northern China for many years, has become the dominant species in the last years. Recent reports show that it is gradually displacing the other greenhouse whitefly species. Neonicotinoid, which includes nitenpyram, is a major group of insecticides used against whiteflies in various crops. When exposed to low doses of insecticides, insects may develop resistance by adapting physiologically. The short- and long-term effects of nitenpyram on insecticide sensitivity in B. tabaci biotype B and T. vaporariorum adult populations have been compared in the present study. After being exposed to LC25 of nitenpyram for 24 h, the B. tabaci biotype B adults showed no significant change in susceptibility to nitenpyram or to five other insecticides: imidacloprid, acetamiprid, abamectin, chlorpyrifos and beta-cypermethrin. By contrast, exposure to the LC25 of nitenpyram for 24 h led to a significant increase in the susceptibility of T. vaporariorum to nitenpyram and imidacloprid, by 1.8- and 2-fold, respectively. When exposed for seven generations to the LC25 of nitenpyram, B. tabaci developed 6-fold resistance to nitenpyram, and 3.1- and 5-fold cross-resistance to imidacloprid and acetamiprid, respectively, whereas T. vaporariorum developed lower resistance (3.7-fold) to the nitenpyram and very low cross-resistance to imidacloprid (2.5-fold). The higher adaptable nature of B. tabaci (demonstrated here in the case of nitenpyram) when exposed to low doses of insecticides may provide a selective advantage when competing with T. vaporariorum in crops.


Bemisia tabaci Trialeurodes vaporariorum Sublethal effect Resistance Invasive pest 



Authors thank Edwige Amiens-Desneux for comments on an earlier version of the manuscript. This work was supported by the National Basic Research and Development Program of China (2009CB119200 and 2012CB114103).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

10646_2012_922_MOESM1_ESM.doc (11.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 11710 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pei Liang
    • 1
  • Yu-An Tian
    • 1
  • Antonio Biondi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nicolas Desneux
    • 2
  • Xi-Wu Gao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyChina Agricultural UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), ISASophia-AntipolisFrance
  3. 3.Department of Agri-food and Environmental Systems ManagementUniversity of CataniaCataniaItaly

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