Advertisement

Ecotoxicology

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 1195–1208 | Cite as

Effects of radioactive contamination on Scots pines in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident

  • Stanislav Geras’kinEmail author
  • Alla Oudalova
  • Nina Dikareva
  • Sergey Spiridonov
  • Thomas Hinton
  • Elena Chernonog
  • Jacqueline Garnier-Laplace
Article

Abstract

A 6 year study of Scots pine populations inhabiting sites in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident is presented. In six study sites, 137Cs activity concentrations and heavy metal content in soils, as well as 137Cs, 90Sr and heavy metal concentrations in cones were measured. Doses absorbed in reproduction organs of pine trees were calculated using a dosimetric model. The maximum annual dose absorbed at the most contaminated site was about 130 mGy. Occurrence of aberrant cells scored in the root meristem of germinated seeds collected from pine trees growing on radioactively contaminated territories for over 20 years significantly exceeded the reference levels during all 6 years of the study. The data suggest that cytogenetic effects occur in Scots pine populations due to the radioactive contamination. However, no consistent differences in reproductive ability were detected between the impacted and reference populations as measured by the frequency of abortive seeds. Even though the Scots pine populations have occupied radioactively contaminated territories for two decades, there were no clear indications of adaptation to the radiation, when measured by the number of aberrant cells in root meristems of seeds exposed to an additional acute dose of radiation.

Keywords

Chernobyl accident Radioactive contamination Scots pine Absorbed doses Cytogenetic effects Reproductive ability Radio-adaptation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was partly supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 11-04-00670) and a French TRASSE project (N 2009-1B). The authors would like to express their deep gratitude to Tatiana Kozina, Dmitry Dikarev and Aleksey Kulikov for their indispensable help in the field. This article also benefited from the comments of two anonymous reviewers.

References

  1. Alexakhin RM, Karaban RT, Prister BS, Spirin DA, Romanov GN, Mishenkov NN, Spiridonov SI, Fesenko SV, Fyodorov YeA, Tikhomirov FA (1994) The effects of acute irradiation on a forest biogeocenosis; experimental data, model and practical applications for accidental cases. Sci Total Environ 157:357–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexakhin RM, Buldakov LA, Gubanov VA, Drozhko YeG, Ilyin LA, Kryshev II, Linge II, Romanov GN, Savkin MN, Saurov MM, Tikhomirov FA, Kholina YuB (2004) Large radiation accidents: consequences and protective countermeasures. IzdAT Publisher, Moscow, RussiaGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson SL, Wild GC (1994) Linking genotoxic responses and reproductive success in ecotoxicology. Environ Health Perspect 102:9–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersson P, Garnier-Laplace J, Beresford NA, Copplestone D, Howard B, Howe P, Oughton D, Whitehouse P (2009) Protection of the environment from ionizing radiation in a regulatory context (protect): proposed numerical benchmark values. J Environ Radioact 100:1100–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnett V, Lewis T (1984) Outliers in statistical data. Wiley, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  6. Boubriak II, Grodzinsky DM, Polischuk VP, Naumenko VD, Gushcha NP, Micheev AN, McCready SJ, Osborne DJ (2008) Adaptation and impairment of DNA repair function in pollen of Betula verrucosa and seeds of Oenothera biennis from differently radionuclide-contaminated sites of Chernobyl. Ann Bot 101:267–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cairney J, Pullman GS (2007) The cellular and molecular biology of conifer embryogenesis. New Phytol 176:511–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dickinson NM, Turner AP (1991) How do trees and other long-lived plants survive in polluted environments? Funct Ecol 5:5–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dueck ThA, Tensen D, Duijff BJ, Pasman FJM (1987) N-Nutrient fertilization, copper toxicity and growth in three grass species in the Netherlands. J Appl Ecol 24:1001–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. FAO (2005) Global forest resources assessment 2005: progress towards sustainable forest management. FAO forestry paper 147, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)Google Scholar
  11. Fedotov IS, Kalchenko VA, Igonina EV, Rubanovich AV (2006) Radiation and genetic consequences of ionizing irradiation on population of Pinus sylvestris L. within the zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Radiat Biol Radioecol 46:268–278 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  12. Galbraith H, LeJeune K, Lipton J (1995) Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in Southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions: I. Field evaluation. Environ Toxicol Chem 11:1895–1903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Garnier-Laplace J, Gilek M, Sundell-Bergman S, Larsson CM (2004) Assessing ecological effects of radionuclides: data gaps and extrapolation issues. J Radiol Prot 24:A139–A155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Geras’kin SA, Fesenko SV, Chernyaeva LG, Sanzharova NI (1994) Statistical method of empirical distribution analysis of coefficient of radionuclids’ accumulation in plants. Agric Biol 1:130–137 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  15. Geras’kin SA, Zimina LM, Dikarev VG, Dikareva NS, Zimin VL, Vasiliyev DV, Oudalova AA, Blinova LD, Alexakhin RM (2003) Bioindication of the anthropogenic effects on micropopulations of Pinus sylvestris L. in the vicinity of a plant for the storage and processing of radioactive waste and in the Chernobyl NPP zone. J Environ Radioact 66:171–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Geras’kin SA, Kim J, Oudalova AA, Vasiliyev DV, Dikareva NS, Zimin VL, Dikarev VG (2005) Bio-monitoring the genotoxicity of populations of Scots pine in the vicinity of a radioactive waste storage facility. Mutat Res 583:55–66Google Scholar
  17. Geras’kin SA, Evseeva TI, Belykh ES, Majstrenko TA, Michalik B, Taskaev AI (2007) Effects on non-human species inhabiting areas with enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia: a review. J Environ Radioact 94:151–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Geras’kin SA, Dikareva NS, Oudalova AA, Spiridonov SI, Dikarev VG (2008) Cytogenetic effects in Scots pine populations from the Bryansk region radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident. Radiat Biol Radioecol 48:584–595 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  19. Geras’kin SA, Vanina JC, Dikarev VG, Novikova TA, Oudalova AA, Spiridonov SI (2010) Genetic variability in Scotch pine populations of the Bryansk region radioactively contaminated in the Chernobyl accident. Biophysics 55:324–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grimes RW, Nuttall WJ (2010) Generating the option of a two-stage nuclear renaissance. Science 329:799–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hickey DA, McNeilly T (1975) Competition between metal tolerant and normal plant populations; a field experiment on normal soil. Evolution 29:458–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hinton TG, Bréchignac F (2005) A case against biomarkers as they are currently used in radioecological risk analyses: a problem of linkage. In: Bréchignac F, Howard BJ (eds) Scientific trends in radiological protection of the environment. IRSN, Cadarache, France, pp 123–136Google Scholar
  23. Hoffmann AA, Hercus MJ (2000) Environmental stress as an evolutionary force. Bioscience 50:217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hygienic standards HN 2.1.72041-06, 2.1.72042-06 (2006) Maximum (MAC) and tentative (TAC) allowable concentrations of chemicals in soils. Rospotrebnadzor, Moscow, Russia (in Russian)Google Scholar
  25. IAEA (1992) Effects of ionizing radiation on plants and animals at levels implied by current radiation protection standards. Technical reports series no. 332. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), ViennaGoogle Scholar
  26. ICRP (2009) Environmental protection: the concept and use of reference animals and plants. ICRP publications 108. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)Google Scholar
  27. Ipatyev V, Bulavik I, Braginsky V, Goncharenko G, Dvornik A (1999) Forest and Chernobyl: forest ecosystems after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident: 1986–1994. J Environ Radioact 42:9–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. ISO 11047 (1998) Soil quality. Determination of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc: Flame and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric methods. International Organization for Standardization. http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=24010
  29. ISO/IEC 17025 (2005) General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. International Organization for Standardization. http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=39883
  30. Kalchenko VA, Fedotov IS (2001) Genetics effects of acute and chronic ionizing radiation on Pinus sylvestris L. inhabiting the Chernobyl meltdown area. Russ J Genet 37:427–447Google Scholar
  31. Kalchenko VA, Spirin DA (1989) Genetics effects revealed in populations of Pinus sylvestris L. growing under exposure to small doses of chronic irradiation. Russ J Genet 25:1059–1064Google Scholar
  32. Kovalchuk I, Abramov V, Pogribny I, Kovalchuk O (2004) Molecular aspects of plant adaptation to life in the Chernobyl zone. Plant Physiol 135:357–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kovda VA, Zyrin NG (eds) (1981) Microelements in soils of the USSR. MGU Publishers, Moscow, Russia (in Russian)Google Scholar
  34. Kozlov MV, Zvereva EL (2007) Industrial barrens: extreme habitats created by non-ferrous metallurgy. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 6:231–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kozlowski TT (2000) Responses of woody plants to human-induced environmental stresses: issues, problems, and strategies for alleviating stress. Crit Rev Plant Sci 19:91–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kozubov GM, Taskaev AI (1994) Radiobiological and radioecological studies of woody plants. Nauka, St Petersburg, Russia (in Russian)Google Scholar
  37. Macnair MR (1993) The genetics of metal tolerance in vascular plants. New Phytol 124:541–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mankovska B, Steinnes E (1995) Effects of pollutants from an aluminum reduction plant on forest ecosystems. Sci Total Environ 163:11–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mashkovich VP (1982) Shield from ionizing radiation. Energoatomizdat, Moscow, Russia (in Russian)Google Scholar
  40. Micieta K, Murin G (1998) Three species of genus Pinus suitable as bioindicators of polluted environment. Water Air Soil Pollut 104:413–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Obuhov AI, Plehanova IO (1991) Atomic-absorption analysis in soil for biologists. MGU Publishers, Moscow, Russia (in Russian)Google Scholar
  42. Peterson CH, Rice SD, Short JW, Esler D, Bodkin JL, Ballachey BE, Irons DB (2003) Long-term ecosystem response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Science 302:2082–2086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pitelka LF (1988) Evolutionary responses of plants to anthropogenic pollutants. Trends Ecol Evol 3:233–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Prus-Glowacki W, Wojnjcka-Poltorak A, Oleksyn J, Reich PB (1999) Industrial pollutants tend to increase genetic diversity: evidence from field-grown European Scots pine. Water Air Soil Pollut 116:395–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Radiation safety norms (RSN-99/2009): SanPiN 2.6.1.2523-09 (2009) Ministry of Health, Moscow, Russia (in Russian)Google Scholar
  46. Ramzaev V, Botter-Jensen L, Thompsen KJ, Andersson KG, Murray AS (2008) An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forest area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks. J Environ Radioact 99:1154–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rands MRW, Adams WM, Bennun L, Butchart SHM, Clements A, Coomes D, Entwistle A, Hodge I, Kapos V, Scharlemann JPW, Sutherland WJ, Vira B (2010) Biodiversity conservation: challenges beyond 2010. Science 239:1298–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sachs L (1972) Statistische Auswertungsmethoden. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  49. Scock AV, Glasoun IN, Samoshkin EN (2005) Influence of radioactive contamination on pollen viability and anomaly in Scots pine from Bryansk region. Forest J 5:7–11 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  50. Shevchenko VA, Pechkurenkov VL, Abramov VI (1992) Radiation genetics of natural populations: genetic consequences of the Kyshtym accident. Nauka, Moscow, Russia (in Russian)Google Scholar
  51. Sparrow AH, Woodwell GM (1962) Prediction of the sensitivity of plants to chronic gamma irradiation. Radiat Bot 2:9–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sparrow AH, Rogers AF, Schwemmer SS (1968) Radiosensitivity studies with woody plants. I. Acute gamma irradiation survival data for 28 species and predictions for 190 species. Radiat Bot 8:149–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Spiridonov SI, Fesenko SV, Geras’kin SA, Solomatin VM, Karpenko YeI (2008) The dose estimation of woody plants in the long-term after the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Biol Radioecol 48:432–438 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  54. Syomov AB, Ptitsyna SN, Sergeeva SA (1992) Analysis of DNA strand break induction and repair in plants from the vicinity of Chernobyl. Sci Total Environ 112:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Theodorakis CW (2001) Integration of genotoxic and population genetic endpoints in biomonitoring and risk assessment. Ecotoxicology 10:245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Thiry Y, Colle C, Yoschenko V, Levchuk S, Hees MV, Hurtevent P, Kashparov V (2009) Impact of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantings on long term 137Cs and 90Sr recycling from a waste burial site in the Chernobyl red forest. J Environ Radioact 100:1062–1068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tikhomirov FA, Shcheglov AI (1994) Main investigation results on the forest radioecology in the Kyshtym and Chernobyl accident zones. Sci Total Environ 157:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Valladares F, Gianoli E, Gomez JM (2007) Ecological limits to plant phenotypic plasticity. New Phytol 176:749–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Walbot V (1996) Sources and consequences of phenotypic and genotypic plasticity in flowering plants. Trends Plant Sci 1:27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Whicker FW, Fraley L (1974) Effects of ionizing radiation on terrestrial plant communities. Adv Radiat Biol 4:317–366Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanislav Geras’kin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alla Oudalova
    • 1
  • Nina Dikareva
    • 1
  • Sergey Spiridonov
    • 1
  • Thomas Hinton
    • 2
  • Elena Chernonog
    • 1
  • Jacqueline Garnier-Laplace
    • 2
  1. 1.Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and AgroecologyObninskRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear SafetySt Paul lez Durance CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations