Wastewater dilution index partially explains observed polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in osprey eggs from Columbia River Basin, 2008–2009
- 209 Downloads
Several polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were found in all 175 osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs collected from the Columbia River Basin between 2002 and 2009. ΣPBDE concentrations in 2008–2009 were highest in osprey eggs from the two lowest flow rivers studied; however, each river flowed through relatively large and populous metropolitan areas (Boise, Idaho and Spokane, Washington). We used the volume of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) discharge, a known source of PBDEs, as a measure of human activity at a location, and combined with river flow (both converted to millions of gallons/day) created a novel approach (an approximate Dilution Index) to relate waterborne contaminants to levels of these contaminants that reach avian eggs. This approach provided a useful understanding of the spatial osprey egg concentration patterns observed. Individual osprey egg concentrations along the Upper Willamette River co-varied with the Dilution Index, while combined egg data (geometric means) from rivers or segments of rivers showed a strong, significant relationship to the Dilution Index with one exception, the Boise River. There, we believe osprey egg concentrations were lower than expected because Boise River ospreys foraged perhaps 50–75% of the time off the river at ponds and lakes stocked with fish that contained relatively low ΣPBDE concentrations. Our limited temporal data at specific localities (2004–2009) suggests that ΣPBDE concentrations in osprey eggs peaked between 2005 and 2007, and then decreased, perhaps in response to penta- and octa-PBDE technical mixtures no longer being used in the USA after 2004. Empirical estimates of biomagnification factors (BMFs) from fish to osprey eggs were 3.76–7.52 on a wet weight (ww) basis or 4.37–11.0 lipid weight. Our earlier osprey study suggested that ΣPBDE egg concentrations >1,000 ng/g ww may reduce osprey reproductive success. Only two of the study areas sampled in 2008–2009 contained individual eggs with ΣPBDE concentrations >1,000 ng/g, and non-significant (P > 0.30) negative relationships were found between ΣPBDEs and reproductive success. Additional monitoring is required to confirm not only the apparent decline in PBDE concentrations in osprey eggs that occurred during this study, but also to better understand the relationship between PBDEs in eggs and reproductive success.
KeywordsOsprey Polybrominated diphenyl ethers Oregon Washington Idaho Wastewater treatment plants Biomagnification factors Productivity Dilution index
We thank the electric utility companies (Avista, Inland Power and Light, Idaho Power, Emerald People’s Utility District, Eugene Water and Electric Board, Pacific Power and Light Company, Salem Electric, Portland General Electric Company, Consumers Power, Inc.) associated with all of the study areas for providing bucket trucks and personnel to access the nests on power poles. The US Coast Guard kindly permitted access to osprey nests built on navigation aids in the Columbia River. D. MacCoy (USGS) provided fish from the Boise River. We are grateful to the numerous landowners who permitted access to their property to survey nesting osprey. P. Haggerty (USGS) and C. Meredith (WSDE) kindly drafted the study area maps. D. Wise (USGS) provided Wastewater Treatment Plant discharge information. We acknowledge L. Periard and L. Gauthier in the Letcher Research Group (at NWRC, Ottawa) for chemical analysis of PBDEs. An earlier draft of the manuscript was improved by comments from G. Heinz, B. Rattner and R. Lazarus (all USGS). The study was funded by the US Geological Survey with the Spokane River study area partially funded by Washington State Department of Ecology. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the US Government or State of Washington.
- Blus LJ (1984) DDE in birds’ eggs: comparison of two methods for estimating critical levels. Wilson Bull 96:268–276Google Scholar
- Furl C, Meredith C (2010) PBT monitoring: PBDE flame retardants in Spokane River fish, 2009. Washington State Dept. Ecology, Publ. No. 10-03-015, Olympia, 55 ppGoogle Scholar
- Henny CJ, Grove RA, Kaiser JL, Bentley VR (2004) An evaluation of osprey eggs to determine spatial residue patterns and effects of contaminants along the lower Columbia River, USA. In: Chancellor RD, Meyburg B-U (eds) Raptors Worldwide, Sixth World Conf Birds of Prey and Owls, WWGBP/MME, Budapest, Hungary, pp 369–388Google Scholar
- Hollander M, Wolfe DA (1973) Nonparametric statistical methods. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Johnson A, Seiders K, Deligeannis C, Kinney K, Sandvik P, Era-Miller B, Alkire D (2006) PBDE flame retardants in Washington rivers and lakes: concentrations in fish and water, 2005–06. Washington State Dept. Ecology, Publ. No. 06-03-027, Olympia, 102 ppGoogle Scholar
- Manugian R (2004) Focus on interim chemical action plan for PBDE flame retardants. Washington State Dept. Ecology, Publ. No. 04-03-055, Olympia, 2 ppGoogle Scholar
- Poole AF (1989) Ospreys: a natural and unnatural history. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 246 ppGoogle Scholar
- Postupalsky S (1977) A critical review of problems in calculating osprey reproductive success. In: Ogden JC (ed) Transactions North American Osprey research conference, Transactions and Proceedings Series No. 2, National Park Service, Washington, DC, pp 1–11Google Scholar
- Wydoski RS, Whitney RR (2003) Inland fishes of Washington, 2nd edn. University Washington Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar