Skip to main content
Log in

Adaptability of Typha domingensis to high pH and salinity

  • Published:
Ecotoxicology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

The aim of this work was to compare the adaptability of two different populations of Typha domingensis exposed to high pH and salinity. The plants were sampled from an uncontaminated natural wetland (NW) and a constructed wetland (CW) for the treatment of an industrial effluent with high pH and salinity. The plants from each population were exposed to the following combined treatments of salinity (mg l−1) and pH: 8,000/10 (values found in the CW); 8,000/7; 200/10 and 200/7 (typical values found in the NW). Chlorophyll concentration, relative growth rates (RGR) and root structure parameters (cross-sectional areas of root, stele and metaxylem vessels) were measured. Images of roots and leaves by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were obtained, and X-ray microanalysis in different tissues was carried out. In all treatments, the RGR and chlorophyll increase were significantly lower in the plants from the NW than in the plants from the CW. However, stress was observed when the plants from the CW were exposed to treatment 200/7. In treatment 8,000/10 the tissues of the plants from the NW showed severe damages. The root structure of plants from the CW was modified by salinity, while pH did not produce changes. In plants from the CW there were no differences between Na concentration in leaves of the treatments 8,000/10 and 200/7, indicating that Na was not transported to leaves. The CW population already possesses physiological and morphological adaptations due to the extreme conditions of pH and salinity. Because of its adaptive capacity, T. domingensis is an efficient species to treat wastewater of high pH and salinity.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Amarante L, Lima JD, Sodek L (2006) Grow and stress conditions cause similar changes in xilem amino acids for different legume species. J Exp Bot 58:123–129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • APHA (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • D’Ambrogio de Argüeso A (1986) Manual de técnicas en histología vegetal. Hemisfero Sur S.A, Buenos Aires

    Google Scholar 

  • Dyhr-Jensen K, Brix H (1996) Effects of pH on ammonium uptake by Typha latifolia L. Plant Cell Environ 19:1431–1436

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Glenn E, Thompson LT, Frye R, Riley J, Baumgartner D (1995) Effects of salinity on growth and evapotranspiration of Typha domingensis Pers. Aquat Bot 52:75–91

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hadad HR, Maine MA, Bonetto C (2006) Macrophyte growth in a pilot-scale constructed wetland for industrial wastewater treatment. Chemosphere 63(10):1744–1753

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hammer DA (1989) Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Lewis, Chelsea

    Google Scholar 

  • Hester WM, Mendessohn IA, McKee KL (2001) Species and population variation to salinity stress in Panicum hemitomon, Spartina patens, and Spartina alterniflora: morphological and physiological contraints. Environ Exp Bot 46:277–297

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kadlec RH, Wallace SD (2009) Treatment wetlands, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton

    Google Scholar 

  • Kadlec RH, Knight RL, Vymazal J, Brix H, Cooper P, Haberl R (2000) Constructed wetlands for pollution control: processes, performance, design and operation. IWA specialist group on use of macrophytes in water pollution control. International Water Association

  • Macek P, Rejmánková E (2007) Response of emergent macrophytes to experimental nutrient and salinity additions. Funct Ecol 21:478–488

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maine MA, Suñé N, Hadad RH, Sánchez GC, Bonetto C (2009) Influence of vegetation on the removal of heavy metals and nutrients in a constructed wetland. J Environ Manag 90:355–363

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Munns R (2002) Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell Environ 25:239–250

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Munns R, Greenway H (1980) Mechanisms of salt tolerance in non-halophytes. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31:149–190

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Munns R, Greenway H, Kirst GO (1993) Halotolerant eukaryotes. In: Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, Ziegler HH (eds) Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology (New Series, Vol. 12C). Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp 59–135

    Google Scholar 

  • Nilratnisakorn S, Thiravetyan P, Nakbanpote W (2007) Synthetic reactive dye wastewater treatment by narrow-leaved cattails (Typha angustifolia Linn.): effects of dye, salinity and metals. Sci Total Environ 384:67–76

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Parida AK, Das AB (2005) Salt tolerance and salinity effects on plants: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 60:324–349

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Popp M (1995) Salt resistance in herbaceous halophytes and mangroves. Prog Bot 56:415–429

    Google Scholar 

  • Suñé N, Sánchez G, Caffaratti S, Maine MA (2007) Cadmium and chromium removal kinetics from solution by two aquatic macrophytes. Environ Poll 145(2):467–473

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomson WW (1975) The structure and function of salt glands. In: Pojkoff Mayber A, Gale J (eds) Biotechnology in agriculture and foresty. Medical and aromatic plant II. Springer, Berlin, pp 118–148

    Google Scholar 

  • Vymazal J, Brix H, Cooper PF, Green MB, Haberl R (1998) Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in Europe. Backhuys, Leiden

    Google Scholar 

  • Wahl S, Ryser P, Edwards PJ (2001) Phenotypic plasticity of grass root anatomy in response to light intensity and nutrient supply. Ann Bot 88:1071–1078

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Westlake DF (1974) Macrophytes. In: Vollenweider RA (ed) A manual on methods for measuring primary production in aquatic environments. IBP Handbook No 12, 2nd edn. International Biological Programme, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 32–42

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) and Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL), CAI+D Project for providing funds for this work.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. M. Mufarrege.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mufarrege, M.M., Di Luca, G.A., Hadad, H.R. et al. Adaptability of Typha domingensis to high pH and salinity. Ecotoxicology 20, 457–465 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-011-0598-0

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-011-0598-0

Keywords

Navigation