Advertisement

Ecotoxicology

, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 387–395 | Cite as

Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing

  • A. BaunEmail author
  • N. B. Hartmann
  • K. Grieger
  • K. O. Kusk
Article

Abstract

Based on a literature review and an overview of toxic effects of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates, this paper proposes a number of recommendations for the developing field of nanoecotoxicology by highlighting the importance of invertebrates as sensitive and relevant test organisms. Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C60, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used Daphnia magna as the test organism. To date, the limited number of studies has indicated acute toxicity in the low mgl−1 range and higher of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates, although some indications of chronic toxicity and behavioral changes have also been described at concentrations in the high μgl−1 range. Nanoparticles have also been found to act as contaminant carriers of co-existing contaminants and this interaction has altered the toxicity of specific chemicals towards D. magna. We recommend that invertebrate testing is used to advance the level of knowledge in nanoecotoxicology through standardized short-term (lethality) tests with invertebrates as a basis for investigating behaviour and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. Based on this literature review, we further recommend that research is directed towards invertebrate tests employing long-term low exposure with chronic endpoints along with more research in bioaccumulation of engineered nanoparticles in aquatic invertebrates.

Keywords

Nanoparticles Nanomaterials Nanoecotoxicology Crustaceans 

References

  1. Adams LK, Lyon DY, McIntosh A, Alvarez PJ (2006) Comparative toxicity of nano-scale TiO2, SiO2 and ZnO water suspensions. Water Sci Technol 54:327–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baun A, Sørensen SN, Rasmussen RF, Hartmann NB, Koch CB (2008) Toxicity and bioaccumulation of xenobiotic organic compounds in the presence of aqueous suspensions of aggregates of nano-C60. Aquat Toxicol 86:379–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Defra (2007) Characterising the potential risks posed by engineered nanoparticles: a second UK government research report. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, London, p 90. Available via http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/nanotech/research/reports/index.htm. Accessed 12 March 2008
  4. Dunphy Guzmán KA, Taylor MR, Banfield JF (2006) Environmental risks of nanotechnology: national nanotechnology initiative funding, 2000–2004. Environ Sci Technol 40(5):1401–1407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. European Commission (2003) Technical guidance document on risk assessment. Part II. European Commission, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  6. Gagné F, Auclair J, Turcotte P, Fournier M, Gagnona C, Sauvé S, Blaise C (2008) Ecotoxicity of CdTe quantum dots to freshwater mussels: impacts on immune system, oxidative stress and genotoxicity. Aquat Toxicol 86:333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Geller W, Müller H (1981) The filtration apparatus of cladocera––filter mesh-sizes and their implications on food selectivity. Oecologia 49:316–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gharbi N, Pressac M, Hadchouel M, Szwarc H, Wilson SR, Moussa F (2005) [60]fullerene is a powerful antioxidant in vivo with no acute or subacute toxicity. Nano Lett 5:2578–2585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gilbert B, Lu G, Kim CS (2007) Stable cluster formation in aqueous suspensions of iron oxyhydroxide nanoparticles. J Colloid Interface Sci 313:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gophen M, Geller W (1984) Filter mesh size and food particle uptake by Daphnia. Oecologia 64:408–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hansen SF, Larsen BH, Olsen SI, Baun A (2007) Categorization framework to aid hazard identification of nanomaterials. Nanotoxicology 1:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hasler AD (1935) The physiology of digestion of plankton crustacea, I: some digestive enzymes of Daphnia. Biol Bull 68:207–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Henry TB, Menn FM, Fleming JT, Wilgus J, Compton RN, Sayler GS (2007) Attributing effects of aqueous C60 nano-aggregates to tetrahydrofuran decomposition products in larval zebrafish by assessment of gene expression. Environ Health Perspect 115:1059–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hund-Rinke K, Simon M (2006) Ecotoxic effect of photocatalytic active nanoparticles TiO2 on algae and daphnids. Environ Sci Poll Res 13(4):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Knauer K, Sobek A, Bucheli TD (2007) Reduced toxicity of diuron to the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in the presence of black carbon. Aquat Toxicol 83:143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kreuter J, Shamenkov D, Petrov V, Ramge P, Cychutek K, Kock-Brandt C, Alyautdin R (2002) Apolipoprotein-mediated transport of nanoparticle bound drugs across the blood-brain barrier. J Drug Target 10:317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kusk KO, Wollenberger L (1999) Fully defined saltwater medium for cultivation of and toxicity testing with marine copepod Acartia tonsa. Environ Toxic Chem 18:1564–1567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Levi N, Hantgan RR, Lively MO, Carroll DO, Prasad GL (2006) C60-fullerenes: detection of intracellular photoluminescence and lack of cytotoxic effects. J Nanobiotech 4:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lovern SB, Klaper R (2006) Daphnia magna mortality when exposed to titanium dioxide and fullerene (C-60) nanoparticles. Environ Toxic Chem 25:1132–1137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lovern SB, Strickler JR, Klaper R (2007) Behavioral and physiological changes in Daphnia magna when exposed to nanoparticle suspensions (titanium dioxide, nano-C60, and C60HxC70Hx). Environ Sci Technol 41:4465–4470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maynard A (2006) Nanotechnology: a research strategy for addressing risk. Woodrow Wilson Institute Center for Scholars. Available via http://www.nanotechproject.org/file_download/77. Accessed 29 Feb 2008
  22. Moore MN (2006) Do nanoparticles present ecotoxicological risks for the health of the aquatic environment? Environ Int 32:967–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nowack B, Buchelli T (2007) Occurrence, behaviour and effects of nanoparticles in the environment. Environ Poll 150:5–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Oberdörster G, Oberdörster E, Oberdörster J (2005) Nanotoxicology: an emerging discipline evolving from studies of ultrafine particles. Environ Health Persp 113(7):823–839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oberdörster E, Zhu SQ, Blickley TM, Clellan-Green P, Haasch ML (2006) Ecotoxicology of carbon-based engineered nanoparticles: effects of fullerene (C-60) on aquatic organisms. Carbon 44:1112–1120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Petersen EJ, Huang Q, Weber WJ (2008) Ecological uptake and depuration of carbon nanotubes by Lumbriculus variegates. Environ Health Persp 113:1–32Google Scholar
  27. Roberts AP, Mount AS, Seda B, Souther J, Quio R, Lin S, Ke PC, Rao AM, Klaine SJ (2007) In vivo biomodification of lipid-coated carbon nanotubes by Daphnia magna. Environ Sci Technol 41:3025–3029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Roco MC (2005) International perspective on government nanotechnology funding in 2005. Nanopart Res 7:707–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rosenkranz P, Fernandes, TF, Chaudhry Q, Stone V (2007) Effects of a model nanoparticle and manufactured nanoparticles on Daphnia magna. Proceedings from Nanotoxicology 2007, 2nd Information Conference, 19–21 April 2007, San Servolo, Venice, Italy, pp 42–43Google Scholar
  30. Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering (2004) Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: opportunities and uncertainties. RS policy document 19/04. London, p 113. Available via http://www.nanotec.org.uk/finalReport.htm. Accessed 12 March 2008
  31. Ruppert EE, Fox RS, Barnes RD (2004) Invertebrate zoology: a functional evolutionary approach, 7th edn. Thomson-Brooks/Cole, BelmontGoogle Scholar
  32. SCENIHR (2007) The appropriateness of the risk assessment methodology in accordance with the Technical Guidance Documents for new and existing substances for assessing the risks of nanomaterials. Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly-Identified Health Risks, European Commission, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General, Brussels, Belgium. Available via http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_scenihr/docs/scenihr_o_004c.pdf Accessed 12 March 2008
  33. Sun H, Zhang X, Niu Q, Chen Y, Crittenden HC (2007) Enhanced accumulation of arsenate in carp in the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Water Air Soil Poll 178:245–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Templeton RC, Ferguson PL, Washburn KM, Scrivens WA, Chandler GT (2006) Life-cycle effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on an estuarine meiobenthic copepod. Environ Sci Technol 40:7387–7393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vaseashta A, Vaclavikova M, Vaseashta S, Gallios G, Roy P, Pummakarnchana O (2007) Nanostructures in environmental pollution detection, monitoring, and remediation. Sci Technol Adv Mat 8:47–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vogelson CT (2001) Advances in drug delivery systems. Mod Drug Discov 4:49–50Google Scholar
  37. Warheit DB, Hoke RA, Finlay C, Donner EM, Reed KL, Sayes CM (2007) Development of a base set of toxicity tests using ultrafine TiO(2) particles as a component of nanoparticle risk management. Toxicol Lett 171:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Weltens R, Goossens R, Van Puymbroeck S (2000) Ecotoxicity of contaminated suspended solids for filter feeders (Daphnia magna). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 39:315–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang J, Wang H, Yan X, Zhang L (2006) Comparison of short-term toxicity between Nano-Se and selenite in mice. Life Sci 76:1099–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhu S, Oberdörster E, Haasch ML (2006) Toxicity of an engineered nanoparticle (fullerene, C(60)) in two aquatic species, Daphnia and fathead minnow. Mar Environ Res 62:S5–S9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Baun
    • 1
    Email author
  • N. B. Hartmann
    • 1
  • K. Grieger
    • 1
  • K. O. Kusk
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringTechnical University of DenmarkKgs. LyngbyDenmark

Personalised recommendations