Toxicity of Organic Compounds to Marine Invertebrate Embryos and Larvae: A Comparison Between the Sea Urchin Embryogenesis Bioassay and Alternative Test Species

Abstract

This study investigated the toxic effects of the insecticides lindane and chlorpyrifos, the herbicide diuron, the organometallic antifoulant tributyltin (TBT), and the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the early life stages of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata, Euechinoidea), Ciona intestinalis (Chordata, Ascidiacea), Maja squinado and Palaemon serratus (Arthropoda, Crustacea) in laboratory acute toxicity tests. The assays studied embryogenesis success from fertilized egg to normal larvae in P. lividus (48 h incubation at 20 °C) and C. intestinalis (24 h incubation at 20 °C), and larval mortality at 24 and 48 h in M. squinado and P. serratus. For P. lividus, the median effective concentrations (EC50) reducing percentages of normal larvae by 50% were: 350 μg l−1 for chlorpyrifos, 5500 μg l−1 for diuron, 4277 μg l−1 for SDS, and 0.309 μg l−1 for TBT. For C. intestinalis, the EC50 values affecting embryogenesis success were 5666 μg l−1 for chlorpyrifos, 24,397 μg l−1 for diuron, 4412 μg l−1 for lindane, 5145 μg l−1 for SDS, and 7.1 μg l−1 for TBT. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) for M. squinado larval survival were 0.84 μg l−1 (24 h) and 0.79 μg l−1 (48 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.23 μg l−1 (24 h) and 2.18 μg l−1 (48 h) for lindane, and 687 μg l−1 (48 h) for SDS. For P. serratus the LC50 values obtained were 0.35 μg l−1 (24 h) and 0.22 μg l−1 (48 h) for chlorpyrifos, 3011 μg l−1 (24 h) and 3044 μg l−1 (48 h) for diuron, 5.20 μg l−1 (24 h) and 5.59 μg l−1 (48 h) for lindane, and 22.30 μg l−1 (24 h) and 17.52 μg l−1 (48 h) for TBT. Decapod larvae, as expected, were markedly more sensitive to the insecticides than sea urchins and ascidians, and SDS was the least toxic compound tested for these organisms. Lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC) of TBT for sea urchin and ascidian embryos, chlorpyrifos and lindane for crustacean larvae, and SDS, were similar to those found in many coastal areas indicating that there would be a risk to invertebrate embryos and larvae from exposure in the field to these pollutants.

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Bellas, J., Beiras, R., Mariño-Balsa, J.C. et al. Toxicity of Organic Compounds to Marine Invertebrate Embryos and Larvae: A Comparison Between the Sea Urchin Embryogenesis Bioassay and Alternative Test Species. Ecotoxicology 14, 337 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-004-6370-y

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Keywords

  • ecotoxicology
  • embryos
  • larvae
  • marine invertebrates
  • organic compounds