American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016). Media and young minds. Pediatrics, 138(5), 1–6. Retrieved from http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2016/10/19/peds.2016-2591.full.pdf.
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Public Education. (1999). Media education. Pediatrics, 104(2), 341–343. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-1636.
American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Communications and Media. (2011). Media use by children younger than 2 years. Pediatrics, 128(5), 1040–1045. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-1753.
Anderson, R. C., & Freebody, P. (1981). Vocabulary knowledge. In J. T. Guthrie (Ed.), Comprehension and teaching: Research reviews (pp. 77–117). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Bloom, L. (1991). Language development from two to three. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Bloom, P. (2000). How children learn the meanings of words. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Bochner, S., & Jones, J. (2003). Child language development: Learning to talk (2nd ed.). London: Whurr.
Cartmill, E. A., Armstrong, B. F., Gleitman, L. R., Goldin-Meadow, S., Medina, T. N., & Trueswell, J. C. (2013). Quality of early parent input predicts child vocabulary 3 years later. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(28), 11278–11283. doi:10.1073/pnas.1309518110.
Charlton, T., Panting, C., & Hannan, A. (2002). Mobile telephone ownership and usage among 10- and 11-year-olds. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 7(3), 152–163. doi:10.1080/13632750200507013.
Christakis, D. A. (2014). Interactive media use at younger than the age of 2 years: Time to rethink the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline? JAMA Pediatrics. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.5081.
Clements, D. (1998). Young children and technology. Paper presented at the Forum on Early Childhood Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education. Washington, DC. Retrieved from ERIC database (ED416991).
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Common Sense Media. (2013). Zero to eight: Children’s media use in America 2013. Retrieved from https://www.commonsensemedia.org/sites/default/files/research/zero-to-eight-2013.pdf.
Cubelic, C. C., & Larwin, K. H. (2014). The use of iPad technology in the kindergarten classroom: A quasi-experimental investigation of the impact on early literacy skills. Comprehensive Journal of Educational Research, 2(4), 47–59.
Dickinson, D. K., & Porche, M. V. (2011). Relation between language experiences in preschool classrooms and children’s kindergarten and fourth-grade language and reading abilities. Child Development, 82(3), 870–886. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01576.x.
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). Peabody picture vocabulary test (4th ed.). Bloomington, MN: Pearson.
Falloon, G. (2014). What’s going on behind the screens? Researching young students’ learning pathways using iPads. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 30, 318–336. doi:10.1111/jcal.12044.
Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power: statistical power analyses for windows and mac (version 18.104.22.168) [software]. Retrieved from http://www.gpower.hhu.de/en.html.
Fenson, L., Dale, P. S., Reznick, J. S., Bates, E., Thal, D. J., Pethic, S. J., … Stiles, J. (1994). Variability in early communicative development. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(5), 1–185. doi:10.2307/1166093.
Fillmore, L. W., & Snow, C. E. (2000). What teachers need to know about language. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Retrieved from ERIC database (ED444379).
Gall, M. D., Gall, J. P., & Borg, W. R. (2007). Educational research: An introduction (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Guernsey, L. (2016). The beginning of the end of the screen time wars: The American Academy of Pediatrics updates its guidelines for young kids—finally. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2016/10/the_american_academy_of_pediatrics_new_screen_time_guidelines.html.
Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (2005). Early childhood environment rating scale-revised (ECERS-R). New York: Teachers College Press.
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (2003). The early catastrophe: The 30 million word gap by age 3. American Educator, 27(1), 4–9. Retrieved from http://www.campbellcollaboration.org/lib/download/969/http://www.aft.org/pdfs/americaneducator/spring2200/TheEarlyCatastrophe.pdf.
Hirsh-Pasek, K., Zosh, J. M., Golinkoff, R. M., Gray, J. H., Robb, M. B., & Kaufman, J. (2015). Putting education in “educational” apps: Lessons from the science of learning. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 16(1), 3–34. doi:10.1177/1529100615569721.
Hsu, I., & Geist, E. A. (2012). A qualitative examination of social interaction during cooperative computer activities. Education, 133(2), 383–390 (EJ992032).
Lan, Y., Sung, Y., & Chang, K. (2007). A mobile-device-supported peer-assisted learning system for collaborative early EFL reading. Language Learning & Technology, 11(3), 130–151.
LeapFrog Enterprises. (2014). LeapPad™ Ultra: The ultimate kids’ learning tablet. Retrieved from http://www.leapfrog.com/en-us/store/p/leappad-ultra/_/A-prod33200.
Leung, L., & Wei, R. (1999). Who are the mobile phone have-nots? New Media and Society, 1(2), 209–226. doi:10.1177/1461444899001002003.
Margolis, J. L., Nussbaum, M., Rodriguez, P., & Rosas, R. (2006). Methodology for evaluating a novel education technology: A case study of handheld video games in Chile. Computers and Education, 46(2), 174–191. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2004.07.007.
Muller, A. A., & Perlmutter, M. (1985). Preschool children’s problem-solving interactions at computers and jigsaw puzzles. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 6, 173–186. Retrieved from http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/25718/0000?sequence=1.
National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) and the Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning and Children’s Media at Saint Vincent College. (2012). Technology and interactive media as tools in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age 8. Retrieved from http://www.naeyc.org/files/naeyc/PS_technology_WEB.pdf.
Neumann, M. M. (2014). An examination of touch screen tablets and emergent literacy in Australian pre-school children. Australian Journal of Education, 58(2), 109–122. doi: 10.1177/0004944114523368.
Neumann, M. M. (2015). Young children and screen time: Creating a mindful approach to digital technology. Australian Educational Computing, 30(2), 1–15. Retrieved from http://journal.acce.edu.au/index.php/AEC/article/view/67/pdf.
O’Mara, J., & Laidlaw, L. (2011). Living in the iWorld: Two literacy researchers reflect on the changing texts and literacy practices of childhood. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 10(4), 149–159.
Puerling, B. (2012). Teaching in the digital age: Smart tools for age 3 to grade (3). St. Paul, MN: Redleaf Press.
Radesky, J. S., Schumacher, J., & Zuckerman, B. (2015). Mobile and interactive media use by young children: The good, the bad, and the unknown. Pediatrics, 135(1), 1–3. doi:10.1542/peds.2014-2251.
Rice, M. L., Huston, A. C., Truglio, R., & Wright, J. (1990). Words from “Sesame Street”: Learning vocabulary while viewing. Developmental Psychology, 26(3), 421–428. doi:10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1241.
Rideout, V. (2014). Learning at home: Families’ educational media use in America. New York: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop. Retrieved from http://www.joanganzcooneycenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/jgcc_learningathome.pdf.
Simon, F., & Nemeth, K. (2012). Digital decisions: Choosing the right technology tools for early childhood education. Lewisville, NC: Gryphon House.
Snow, C. E., & Tabors, P. O. (1993). Language skills that relate to literacy development. In B. Spodek & O. N. Saracho (Eds.), Language and literacy in early childhood education (pp. 1–20). New York: Teachers College Press.
Sweetser, P., Johnson, D., Ozdowska, A., & Wyeth, P. (2012). Active versus passive screen time for young children. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 37(4), 94–98.
Tamim, R. M., Bernard, R. M., Borokhovski, E., Abrami, P. C., & Schmid, R. F. (2011). What forty years of research says about the impact of technology on learning: A second-order meta-analysis and validation study. Review of Educational Research, 81(1), 4–28. doi:10.3102/0034654310393361.
Williams, K. T. (2007). Expressive vocabulary test (2nd ed.). Bloomington, MN: Pearson.
Wohlwend, K. E. (2009). Early adopters: Playing new literacies and pretending new technologies in print-centric classrooms. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 9(2), 117–140. doi:10.1177/1468798409105583.
Yelland, N. (1999). Technology as play. Early Childhood Education Journal, 26(4), 217–220. doi:10.1023/A:1022907505087.