High quality parent–child relations are essential to healthy development and learning in children. Homeless families experience many barriers to realizing the needed bonding and nurturance for having healthy relationships. This article explores the obstacles to the development of nurturing parent–child relations and offers strategies for addressing these issues.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Anooshian, L. (2000). Moving to educational success: Building positive relationships for homeless children. In J. Stronge & E. Reed-Victor (Eds.), Educating homeless children: Promising practices (pp. 79–98). Raleigh, NC: Eye on Education.
Anooshian, L. (2005). Violence and aggression in the lives of homeless children: A review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 10(20), 129–152.
Bernstein, V., Hans, S., & Percansky, C. (1991). Advocating for the young child in need through strengthening the parent–child relationship. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20(1), 28–41.
Brazelton, T., & Greenspan, S. (2000). The irreducible needs of children. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005). Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Caldwell, B. (1989). A faltering trust. In D. Blazer (Ed.), Faith development in early childhood (pp. 58–78). Kansas City, MO: Sheed and Ward.
Erikson, E. (1974). Dimensions of a new identity. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Galinsky, E. (1987). The six stages of parenthood. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Galinsky, E. (1999). Ask the children. New York: William Morrow and Company.
Goleman, D. (2006). Social intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Gorzka, P. (1999). Homeless parents: Parenting education to prevent abusive behaviors. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 12(3), 101–109.
Graham-Bermann, S., Coupet, S., Egler, L., Mattis, J., & Banyard, V. (1996). Interpersonal relationships and adjustment of children in homeless and economically distressed families. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25(3), 250–261.
Hallowell, E. (2002). The childhood roots of adult happiness. New York: Ballantine.
Hanson, M., & Lynch, E. (2004). Understanding families: Approaches to diversity, disability, and risk. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Healthy Families New York (2006). Health families New York home visiting program. New York: Healthy Families of New York (New York Office of Children and Family Services, Rensselaer.
Hoffman, M. (2000). Empathy and moral development: Implications for caring and justice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Kelly, J. (2006). Supporting children’s development by strengthening families who are homeless. CHDD Outlook, 17(2), 2–4.
Knitzer, J., & Lefkowitz, J. (2005). Resources to promote social and emotional health and school readiness in young children and families. New York: National Center for Children in Poverty (Columbia University, School of Public Health).
Knitzer, J., & Lefkowitz, J. (2006). Helping the most vulnerable infants, toddlers, and their families. New York: National Center for Children in Poverty, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University.
Letiecq, B., Anderson, E., & Koblinsky, S. (1996). Social support of homeless and permanently housed low-income mothers with young children. Family Relations, 45, 265–272.
Lezin, N., Rolleri, L., Bean, S., & Taylor, J. (2004). Parent–child connectedness: Implications for research, interventions and positive impacts on adolescent health. Santa Cruz, CA: ETR Associates.
Lindsey, E. (1998). The impact of homelessness and shelter life on family relationships. Family Relations, 47(3), 243–252.
Nabors, L., Proescher, E., & DeSilva, M. (2001). School-based mental health prevention activities for homeless and at-risk youth. Child and Youth Care Forum, 30(1), 3–18.
Nunez, R. (1996). The new poverty: Homeless families in America. New York: Insight Books.
Parks, R., Stevens, R., & Spence, S. (2007). A systematic review of cognition in homeless children and adolescents. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 100, 46–50.
Perry, B., & Szalavitz, M. (2006). The boy who was raised a dog: What traumatized children can teach us about loss, love, and healing. New York: Basic Books.
Pipher, M. (1996). The shelter of each other: Rebuilding our families. New York: Ballantine.
Raferty, Y., & Shinn, M. (1991). The impact of homelessness on children. American Psychologist, 46(11), 1170–1179.
Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rosier, K. (2000). Mothering inner-city children: The early school years. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Rossi, A., & Rossi, P. (1990). Of human bonding: Parent–child relations across the life span. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Small, M. (2001). Kids: How biology and culture shape the way we raise our children. New York: Doubleday.
Steinbock, M. (1995). Homeless female-headed families: Relationships at risk. Marriage and Family Review, 20(1/2), 143–159.
Swick, K. (2004). Empowering parents, families, schools, and communities during the early childhood years. Champaign, IL: Stipes.
Swick, K. (2005). Helping homeless families overcome barriers to successful functioning. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(3), 195–200.
Swick, K. (2006). Families and educators together: Raising caring and peaceable children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(4), 279–287.
Swick, K. (2007). Empower foster parents toward caring relations with their children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(6), 393–398.
Swick, K., DaRos, D., & Kovach, B. (2001). Empowering parents and families through a caring inquiry approach. Early Childhood Education Journal, 29(1), 65–70.
Swick, K., & Williams, R. (2006). An analysis of Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological perspective for early childhood educators: Implications for working with families experiencing stress. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(5), 371–378.
Taylor, S. (2002). The tending instinct: How nurturing is essential to who we are and how we live. New York: Times Books, Henry Holt and Company.
Torquati, J. (2002). Personal and social resources as predictors of parenting in homeless families. Journal of Family Issues, 23(4), 463–485.
Torquati, J., & Gamble, W. (2001). Social resources and psychosocial adaptation of homeless school aged children. Journal of Social Distress and the Homeless, 10(4), 305–321.
Wasson, R., & Hill, R. (1998). The process of becoming homeless: An investigation of female-headed families living in poverty. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 32(2), 320–332.
White, B. (1988). Educating infants and toddlers. Reading, MA: Lexington Books.
About this article
Cite this article
Swick, K.J. Empowering the Parent–Child Relationship in Homeless and Other High-risk Parents and Families. Early Childhood Educ J 36, 149–153 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10643-007-0228-x
- Homeless parents and children
- Empower homeless parents
- Parent–child relations
- Nurturing relations in homeless families