Advertisement

Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 101, Issue 12, pp 1707–1715 | Cite as

Deep-diving of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) during their marine feeding migrations

  • Sigurður Már Einarsson
  • Sigurður Guðjónsson
  • Ingi Rúnar Jónsson
  • Jóhannes Guðbrandsson
Article

Abstract

Data from seven data storage tags recovered from Atlantic salmon marked as smolts were analyzed for depth movements and patterns of deep diving during the marine migration. The salmon mostly stayed at the surface and showed diurnal activity especially from autumn until spring. During the first months at sea the salmon stayed at shallower depths (<100 m). The salmon took short deep dives (>100 m), that were rare or absent during the first summer at sea but increased in frequency and duration especially in late winter. The maximum depth of the dives varied from 419 to 1187 m. Most of dives were short, (<5 h) but could last up to 33 h. The duration of dives increased in late winter until spring and the overall depth and maximum depth per dive increased exponentially over time. The initiation of the dives was more common in evenings and at night, suggesting nocturnal diving. We hypothesized that deep diving is related to feeding of salmon as mesopelagic fish can be important food for salmon during winter.

Keywords

Atlantic salmon DST tags Deep diving 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank D.L. Scarnecchia for a critical review of the manuscript and appreciate valuable comments from two anonymous reviwers. Sincere thanks to several coworkers at the Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, especially Björn Theódórsson, Halla Kjartansdóttir and Eydís Njarðardóttir for their valuable contribution. The study was partially supported by the Salmonid Enhancement Fund in Iceland.

Supplementary material

10641_2018_817_MOESM1_ESM.docx (905 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 904 kb)

References

  1. Chaput G (2012) Overview of the status of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the North Atlantic and trends in marine mortality. ICES J Mar Sci 69(9):1538–1548.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fss013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chittenden CM, Fauchald P, Rikardsen AH (2013) Important open-ocean areas for northern Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - as estimated using a simple ambient-temperature approach. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 70(1):101–104.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2012-0215 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Davidsen JG, Plantalech Manel-la N, Økland F, Diserud OH, Thorstad EB, Finstad B, Sivertsgård R, McKinley RS, Rikardsen AH (2008) Changes in swimming depths of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts relative to light intensity. J Fish Biol 73(4):1065–1074.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2008.02004.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Davis ND, Aydin KY, Ishida Y (1998) Diel feeding habits and estimates of prey consumption of sockeye, chum, and pink salmon in the Bering Sea in 1997. In: NPAFC documents 363, FRI-UW-9816, fish. Res. Inst, Univ. of Washington, Seattle; Nat. Res. Inst. of Far Seas Fish., Shimizu, p 24Google Scholar
  5. Friedland KD, Hansen LP, Dunkley DA, MacLean JC (2000) Linkage between ocean climate, post-smolt growth, and survival of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the North Sea area. ICES J Mar Sci 57(2):419–429.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.1999.0639 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gudjonsson S, Jonsson IR, Antonsson T (2005) Migration of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, smolt through the estuary area of river Ellidaar in Iceland. Environ Biol Fish 74(3–4):291–296.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10641-005-0500-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guðjónsson S, Einarsson SM, Jónsson IR, Guðbrandsson J (2015) Marine feeding areas and vertical movements of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) as inferred from recoveries of data storage tags. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 72(7):1087–1098.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2014-0562 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hedger RD, Rikardsen AH, Strøm JF, Righton DA, Thorstad EB, Næsje TF (2017a) Diving behaviour of Atlantic salmon at sea: effects of light regimes and temperature stratification. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 574:127–140.  https://doi.org/10.3354/meps12180 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hedger RD, Rikardsen AH, Thorstad EB (2017b) Pop-up satellite archival tag effects on the diving behaviour, growth and survival of adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar at sea. J Fish Biol 90:294–310.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.13174 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Holm M, Holst JC, Hansen LP, Jacobsen JA, O’Maoileidigh N, Moore A (2003) Migration and distribution of Atlantic salmon post-smolts in the North Sea and north-east Atlantic. In: Mills D (ed) Salmon at the Edge, Blackwell Science, pp 7–23Google Scholar
  11. Holm M, Jacobsen JA, Sturlaugsson J, Holst JC (2006) Behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) recorded by data storage tags in the NE Atlantic – implications for interception by pelagic trawls. In: ICES Document CM 2006/Q:12, p 16Google Scholar
  12. ICES (2018) Report of the working group on North Atlantic salmon (wgnas), 4–13 april 2018. Tech. Rep. CM 2018/ACOM:21, ICES, Woods Hole, MA, USAGoogle Scholar
  13. Irigoien X, Klevjer TA, Røstad A, Martinez U, Boyra G, Acuña JL, Bode A, Echevarria F, Gonzalez-Gordillo JI, Hernandez-Leon S, Agusti S, Aksnes DL, Duarte CM, Kaartvedt S (2014) Large mesopelagic fishes biomass and trophic efficiency in the open ocean. Nat Commun 5(3271):3271.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4271 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Jacobsen JA, Hansen LP (2001) Feeding habits of wild and escaped farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in the Northeast Atlantic. ICES J Mar Sci 58(4):916–933.  https://doi.org/10.1006/jmsc.2001.1084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johannsson M, Gudjonsson S (1996) Fiskrækt (In Icelandic). Freyr 11:463–471Google Scholar
  16. Lacroix GL (2013) Population-specific ranges of oceanic migration for adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) documented using pop-up satellite archival tags. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 70(7):1011–1030.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lacroix GL (2014) Large pelagic predators could jeopardize the recovery of endangered Atlantic salmon. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 71(3):343–350.  https://doi.org/10.1139/cjfas-2013-0458 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lacroix GL, McCurdy P, Knox D (2004) Migration of Atlantic salmon postsmolts in relation to habitat use in a coastal system. Trans Am Fish Soc 133(6):1455–1471.  https://doi.org/10.1577/T03-032.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Olafsson K, Einarsson SM, Gilbey J, Pampoulie C, Hreggvidsson GO, Hjorleifsdottir S, Gudjonsson S (2016) Origin of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at sea in Icelandic waters. ICES J Mar Sci 73(6):1525–1532.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsv176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Otero J, L’Abée-Lund JH, Castro-Santos T, Leonardsson K, Storvik GO, Jonsson B, Dempson B, Russell IC, Jensen AJ, Baglinière JL, Dionne M, Armstrong JD, Romakkaniemi A, Letcher BH, Kocik JF, Erkinaro J, Poole R, Rogan G, Lundqvist H, Maclean JC, Jokikokko E, Arnekleiv JV, Kennedy RJ, Niemelä E, Caballero P, Music PA, Antonsson T, Gudjonsson S, Veselov AE, Lamberg A, Groom S, Taylor BH, Taberner M, Dillane M, Arnason F, Horton G, Hvidsten NA, Jonsson IR, Jonsson N, Mckelvey S, Næsje TF, Skaala Ø, Smith GW, Sægrov H, Stenseth NC, Vøllestad LA (2014) Basin-scale phenology and effects of climate variability on global timing of initial seaward migration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Glob Chang Biol 20(1):61–75.  https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12363 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Pearchy W, Nishiyama T, Fujii T, Masuda K (1984) Diel variation in the feeding habits of Pacific salmon caught in gill nets during a 24-hour period in the Gulf of Alaska. Fish Bull 82(2):391–400Google Scholar
  22. Pinheiro JC, Bates D (2009) Mixed-effects models in S and S-PLUS. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  23. Reddin DG, Friedland KD, Downton P, Dempson JB, Mullins CC (2004) Thermal habitat experienced by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) kelts in coastal Newfoundland waters. Fish Oceanogr 13(1):24–35.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.2004.00237.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Reddin DG, Downton P, Friedland KD (2006) Diurnal and nocturnal temperatures for Atlantic salmon postsmolts (Salmo salar L.) during their early marine life. Fish Bull 104(3):415–427Google Scholar
  25. Reddin DG, Downton P, Fleming IA, Hansen LP, Mahon A (2011) Behavioural ecology at sea of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) kelts from a Newfoundland (Canada) river. Fish Oceanogr 20(3):174–191.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.2011.00576.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rikardsen AH, Dempson JB (2011) Dietary life-support: the food and feeding of Atlantic salmon at sea. In: Aas Ø, Einum S, Klemetsen A, Skurdal J (eds) Atlantic Salmon ecology. Wiley-Blackwell chap 5Google Scholar
  27. Rikardsen AH, Diserud OH, Elliott JM, Dempson JB, Sturlaugsson J, Jensen AJ (2007) The marine temperature and depth preferences of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and sea trout (Salmo trutta), as recorded by data storage tags. Fish Oceanogr 16(5):436–447.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2419.2007.00445.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Strøm JF, Thorstad EB, Chafe G, Sørbye SH, Righton D, Rikardsen AH, Carr J (2017) Ocean migration of pop-up satellite archival tagged Atlantic salmon from the Miramichi River in Canada. ICES J Mar Sci 74(5):1356–1370.  https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsw220 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Þórðardóttir GB, Guðbergsson G (2017) Catch statistics for Atlantic salmon, Arctic char and brown trout in Icelandic rivers and lakes 2016. Tech. Rep. HV 2017-030, Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, Reykjavík, IcelandGoogle Scholar
  30. Thorrold SR, Afonso P, Fontes J, Braun CD, Santos RS, Skomal GB, Berumen ML (2014) Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean. Nat Commun 5:4274.  https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms5274 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Thorstad EB, Whoriskey F, Rikardsen AH, Aarestrup K (2011) Aquatic nomads: the life and migrations of the Atlantic Salmon. In: Aas Ø, Einum S, Klemetsen A, Skurdal J (eds) Atlantic Salmon ecology, Wiley-Blackwell, chap, vol 1, pp 1–32.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444327755.ch1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Walker RV, Myers KW, Davis ND, Aydin KY, Friedland KD, Carlson HR, Boehlert GW, Urawa S, Ueno Y, Anma G (2000) Diurnal variation in thermal environment experienced by salmonids in the North Pacific as indicated by data storage tags. Fish Oceanogr 9(2):171–186.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2419.2000.00131.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ward DM, Hvidsten NA (2011) Predation: compensation and context dependence. In: Aas Ø, Einum S, Klemetsen A, Skurdal J (eds) Atlantic Salmon ecology, Wiley-Blackwell, chap 8,  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781444327755.ch8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Westerberg H (1982a) Ultrasonic tracking of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo-Salar L.) - I. movements in coastal regions. In: Institute of Freshwater Research Drottingholm Report, no. 60 in 1982, Swedish Board of Fisheries, pp 81–101Google Scholar
  35. Westerberg H (1982b) Ultrasonic tracking of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) - II. Swimming depth and temperature stratification. In: Institute of Freshwater Research Drottingholm Report, no. 60 in 1982, Swedish board of fisheries, Lund, Sweden, pp 102–120Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sigurður Már Einarsson
    • 1
  • Sigurður Guðjónsson
    • 1
  • Ingi Rúnar Jónsson
    • 1
  • Jóhannes Guðbrandsson
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine and Freshwater Research InstituteReykjavíkIceland

Personalised recommendations