Advertisement

Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 98, Issue 8, pp 1871–1888 | Cite as

Feeding, condition, and abundance of Japanese eels from natural and revetment habitats in the Tone River, Japan

  • Hikaru Itakura
  • Tsubasa Kaino
  • Yoichi Miyake
  • Takashi Kitagawa
  • Shingo Kimura
Article

Abstract

The rivers and lakes of Japan have had a wide range of shoreline modifications for flood control and stabilization, but the effects of this on the ecology of Japanese eels, Anguilla japonica, is not known. To clarify possible effects of riverbank modifications on yellow-phase Japanese eels in the lower Tone River, Japan, the abundance, condition factor and stomach contents were investigated using 586 eels collected in both revetment and natural shore areas at four sites. Eel abundances and their condition factors were higher in the natural shore areas than those of revetment areas at the three freshwater sites, and the smallest sizes of eels appeared to prefer the natural areas at all sites. The number of feeding eels, their food consumption, and the diversity of consumed prey were also generally greater in the natural shore areas than in the revetment areas. Other differences in diet were observed, such as terrestrial oligochaetes only being eaten by eels at the freshwater river natural shore areas and bivalves being eaten more in the revetment areas of those sites. In contrast, in the brackish habitat eels appeared to be less affected by concrete revetment with wave-dissipating tetrapod blocks. The range of differences found between the freshwater sampling areas suggest that revetment shorelines are used less by eels, particularly smaller eels, when natural shore areas are available, and eels that live near revetment have a lower abundance and diversity of prey to feed on.

Keywords

Anguilla japonica Shoreline revetment Habitat degradation Diet Biodiversity Eel conservation 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported in part by the River Fund in charge of the Foundation of River and Watershed Environment Management (FOREM) in Japan, and was also supported in part by the Futaba Electronics Memorial Foundation. M.J. Miller helped to improve the manuscript. This study followed the animal experimental use guidelines of The University of Tokyo.

References

  1. Aoyama J, Sasai S, Miller MJ, Shinoda A, Nakamura A, Kawazu K, Tsukamoto K (2002) A preliminary study of the movements of yellow and silver eels, Anguilla japonica, in the estuary of the Fukui River, Japan, as revealed by acoustic tracking. Hydrobiol 470:31–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aoyama J, Shinoda A, Sasai S, Miller MJ, Tsukamoto K (2005) First observations of the burrows of Anguilla japonica. J Fish Biol 67:1534–1543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baras E, Jeandrain D, Serouge B, Philippart JC (1998) Seasonal variations in time and space utilization by radio-tagged yellow eels Anguilla anguilla (L.) in a small stream. Hydrobiol 372:187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beumer JP (1979) Feeding and movement of Anguilla australis and Anguilla reinhardtii in Macleods Morass, Victoria, Australia. J Fish Biol 14:573–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonhommeau S, Chassot E, Planque B, Rivot E, Knap AH, Le Pape O (2008) Impact of climate on eel populations of the Northern Hemisphere. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 373:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bouchereau J, Marques C, Pereira P, Guelorget O (2009) Feeding behaviour of Anguilla anguilla and trophic resources in the Ingril Lagoon (Mediterranean, France). Cah Biol Mar 50:319–332Google Scholar
  7. Bozeman EL, Helfman GS, Richardson T (1985) Population size and home range of American eels in a Georgia tidal creek. Trans Am Fish Soc 114:821–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buchanan BP, Nagle GN, Walter MT (2014) Long-term monitoring and assessment of a stream restoration project in central New York. River Res Appl 30:245–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bunn SE, Arthington AH (2002) Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity. Environ Manag 30:492–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Casselman MJ (2003) Dynamics of resources of the American eel, Anguilla rostrata: declining abundance in the 1990s. In: Aida K, Tsukamoto K, Yamauchi K (eds) Eel biology. Springer, Tokyo, pp 255–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chisnall BL, Kalish JM (1993) Age validation and movement of freshwater (Anguilla dieffenbachii and A. australis) in a New Zealand pastoral stream. New Zeal J Mar Freshw Res 27:333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cooke S, Paukert C, Hogan Z (2012) Endangered river fish: factors hindering conservation and restoration. Endanger Species Res 17:179–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davidson D, Marshall CT (2010) Are morphometric indices accurate indicators of stored energy in herring Clupea harengus? J Fish Biol 76:913–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dekker W, Casselman JM, Cairns DK, Tsukamoto K, Jellyman D, Lickers H (2003) Worldwide decline of eel resources necessitates immediate action—Quebec declaration of concern. Fish 28:28–30Google Scholar
  15. DeLeo GA, Gatto M (1996) Trends in vital rates of the European eel: evidence for density dependence? Ecol Appl 6:1281–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Denoncourt CE, Stauffer JRJ (1993) Feeding selectivity of the American eel Anguilla rostrata (LeSueur) in the upper Delaware River. Am Midl Nat 129:301–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dörner H, Skov C, Berg S, Schulze T, Beare DJ, Van der Velde G (2009) Piscivory and trophic position of Anguilla anguilla in two lakes: importance of macrozoobenthos density. J Fish Biol 74:2115–2131Google Scholar
  18. Fausch KD, Northcote TG (1992) Large woody debris and salmonid habitat in a small coastal British Columbia stream. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49:682–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Feunteun E (2002) Management and restoration of European eel population (Anguilla anguilla): an impossible bargain. Ecol Eng 18:575–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ford TE, Mercer E (1986) Density, size distribution and home range of American eels, Anguilla rostrata, in a Massachusetts salt marsh. Environ Biol Fishes 17:309–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Froese R (2006) Cube law, condition factor and weight-length relationships: history, meta-analysis and recommendations. J Appl Ichthyol 22:241–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fukuda N, Miller MJ, Aoyama J, Shinoda A, Tsukamoto K (2013) Evaluation of the pigmentation stages and body proportions from the glass eel to yellow eel in Anguilla japonica. Fish Sci 79:425–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Han YS, Tzeng WN (2007) Sex-dependent habitat use by the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in Taiwan. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 338:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Han YS, Liao IC, Huang YS, He JT, Chang CW, Tzeng WN (2003) Synchronous changes of morphology and gonadal development of silvering Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Aquaculture 219:783–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Han YS, Tzeng WN, Liao IC (2009) Time series analysis of Taiwanese catch data of Japanese glass eels Anguilla japonica: possible effects of the reproductive cycle and El Niño events. Zool Stud 48:632–639Google Scholar
  26. Haro A, Richkus W, Whalen K, Hoar A, Busch WD, Lary S, Brush T, Dixon D (2000) Population decline of the American eel: implications for research and management. Fish 25:7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hedger RD, Dodson JJ, Hatin D, Caron F, Fournier D (2010) River and estuary movements of yellow-stage American eels Anguilla rostrata, using a hydrophone array. J Fish Biol 76:1294–1311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Helfman GS, Stoneburner DL, Bozeman EL, Christian PA, Whalen R (1983) Ultrasonic telemetry of American eel movements in a tidal creek. Trans Am Fish Soc 112:105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hyslop EJ (1980) Stomach contents analysis—a review of methods and their application. J Fish Biol 17:411–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Itakura H, Kitagawa T, Miller MJ, Kimura S (2014) Declines in catches of Japanese eels in rivers and lakes across Japan: Have river and lake modifications reduced fishery catches? Landsc Ecol Eng. doi: 10.1007/s11355-014-0252-0 Google Scholar
  31. Jellyman DJ (1989) Diet of two species of freshwater eel (Anguilla spp.) in Lake Pounui, New Zealand. New Zeal J Mar Freshw Res 23:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jellyman DJ, Sykes JRE (2003) Diel and seasonal movements of radio-tagged freshwater eels, Anguilla spp., in two New Zealand streams. Environ Biol Fishes 66:143–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kaifu K, Tamura M, Aoyama J, Tsukamoto K (2010) Dispersal of yellow phase Japanese eels Anguilla japonica after recruitment in the Kojima Bay-Asahi River system, Japan. Environ Biol Fishes 88:273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kaifu K, Miller MJ, Yada T, Aoyama J, Washitani I, Tsukamoto K (2013a) Growth differences of Japanese eels Anguilla japonica between fresh and brackish water habitats in relation to annual food consumption in the Kojima Bay-Asahi River system, Japan. Ecol Freshw Fish 22:127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kaifu K, Miyazaki S, Aoyama J, Kimura S, Tsukamoto K (2013b) Diet of Japanese eels Anguilla japonica in the Kojima Bay-Asahi River system, Japan. Environ Biol Fishes 96:439–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kanazawa K, Miyake Y (2006) Comparison of stream invertebrate assemblages between concrete and natural substrates. Ecol Civil Eng 9:141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kawakami Y, Mochioka N, Nakazono (1999) A Immigration patterns of glass eels Anguilla japonica entering river in Northern Kyushu, Japan. Bull Mar Sci 64:315–327Google Scholar
  38. Kim H, Kimura S, Shinoda A, Kitagawa T, Sasai Y, Sasaki H (2007) Effect of El Niño on migration and larval transport of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). ICES J Mar Sci 64:1387–1395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kimura S, Tsukamoto K, Sugimoto T (1994) A model for the larval migration of the Japanese eel—roles of the trade winds and salinity front. Mar Biol 119:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kimura S, Doos K, Coward AC (1999) Numerical simulation to resolve the issue of downstream migration of the Japanese eel. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 186:303–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kimura S, Inoue T, Sugimoto T (2001) Fluctuation in the distribution of low-salinity water in the North Equatorial current and its effect on the larval transport of the Japanese eel. Fish Oceanogr 10:51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kotake A, Arai T, Okamura A, Yamada Y, Utoh T, Oka HP, Miller MJ, Tsukamoto K (2007) Ecological aspects of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, collected from coastal areas of Japan. Zoolog Sci 24:1213–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Krebs CJ (1998) Species diversity measures. In: Longman AW(ed) Ecological Methodology. 2nd ed. Menlo Park CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  44. Krueger WH, Oliveira K (1999) Evidence for environmental sex determination in the American eel, Anguilla rostrata. Environ Biol Fishes 55:381–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kusakabe T, Ariyama H, Ohmi H, Amano T (2005) Comparison of feeding conditions in adult marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus between an inclined sea wall of Kansai International Airport and a natural rocky shore. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 71:594–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. LaBar GW, Facey DE (1983) Local movements and inshore populations sizes of American eels in Lake Champlain, Vermont. Trans Am Fish Soc 112:114–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Labar GW, Casal JAH, Delgado CF (1987) Local movements and population size of European eels, Anguilla anguilla, in a small lake in southwestern Spain. Environ Biol Fishes 19:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lammens E, DeNie H, Vijverberg J, van Densen W (1985) Resource partitioning and niche shifts of bream (Abramis brama) and eel (Anguilla anguilla) mediated by predation of smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) on Daphnia hyalina. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 42:1342–1351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Le Cren ED (1951) The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in the Perch (Perca fluviatilis). J Anim Ecol 20:201–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Machut LS, Limburg KE, Schmidt RE, Dittman D (2007) Anthropogenic impacts on American eel demographics in Hudson River tributaries, New York. Trans Am Fish Soc 136:1699–1713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Michel P, Oberdorff T (1995) Feeding habits of fourteen European freshwater fish species. Cybium 19:5–46Google Scholar
  52. Mikami S, Nakane Y, Sano M (2011) Influence of offshore breakwaters on fish assemblage structure in the surf zone of a sandy beach in Tokyo Bay, central Japan. Fish Sci 78:113–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Miller MJ, Kimura S, Friedland KD, Knights B, Kim H, Jellyman DJ TK (2009) Review of ocean-atmospheric factors in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans influencing spawning and recruitment of anguillid eels. In: Challenges for Diadromous Fishes in a Dynamic Global Environment. Am Fish Soc Symp 69. p 231–249Google Scholar
  54. Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries, Japan (1954–2006) Annual report of catch statistics on fishery and aquiculture. Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  55. Moore KMS, Gregory SV (1988) Response of young-of-the-year cutthroat trout to manipulation of habitat structure in a small stream. Trans Am Fish Soc 117:162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Morrison WE, Secor DH (2003) Demographic attributes of yellow-phase American eels (Anguilla rostrata) in the Hudson River estuary. Trans Am Fish Soc 60:1487–1501Google Scholar
  57. Morrison WE, Secor DH (2004) Abundance of yellow-phase American Eels in the Hudson River Estuary. Trans Am Fish Soc 133:896–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mosegaard K, Holmgren H (1996) Implications of individual growth status on the future sex of the European eel. J Fish Biol 49:910–925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nakamura K, Tockner K, Amano K (2006) River and wetland restoration: lessons from Japan. Bioscience 56:419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nakano D, Nagayama S, Kawaguchi Y, Nakamura F (2008) River restoration for macroinvertebrate communities in lowland rivers: insights from restorations of the Shibetsu River, north Japan. Landsc Ecol Eng 4:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nihira A (2006) Catch fluctuations of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in the Tone River and Lake Kasumigaura. Res Rep Ibaraki Prefect Freshwater Fish Res Inst 40:55–68Google Scholar
  62. Okamura A, Yamada Y, Yokouchi K, Horie N, Mikawa N, Utoh T, Tanaka S, Tsukamoto K (2007) A silvering index for the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Environ Biol Fishes 80:77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Oliveira K (1997) Movements and growth rates of yellow-phase American eels in the Annaquatucket River, Rhode Island. Trans Am Fish Soc 126:638–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Onikura N, Nakajima J, Eguchi K, Miyake T, Nishida T, Inui R, Kenmochi T, Sugimoto Y, Kawamura K, Oikawa S (2007) Relationships between presence and populations of freshwater fishes and revetment conditions in creeks around Sea of Ariake, northwestern Kyushu, Japan. J Japan Soc Water Environ 30:277–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Osugi T, Tate S, Takemura K, Watanabe W, Ogura N, Kikkawa J (2007) Ecological research for the restoration and management of rivers and reservoirs in Japan. Landsc Ecol Eng 3:159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Otake T, Miller MJ, Inagaki T, Minagawa G, Shinoda A, Kimura Y, Sasai S, Oya M, Tasumi S, Suzuki Y, Uchida M, Tsukamoto K (2006) Evidence for migration of metamorphosing larvae of Anguilla japonica in the KuroshioGoogle Scholar
  67. Palmer MA, Bernhardt ES, Allan JD, Lake PS, Alexander G, Brooks S, Carr J, Clayton S, Dahm CN, Follstad Shah J, Galat DL, Loss SG, Goodwin P, Hart DD, Hassett B, Jenkinson R, Kondolf GM, Lave R, Meyer JL, O’Donnell TK, Pagano L, Sudduth E (2005) Standards for ecologically successful river restoration. J Appl Ecol 42:208–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pianka E (1973) The structure of lizard communities. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 4:53–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Roncarati A, Melotti P, Mordenti O, Gennari L (1997) Influence of stocking density of European eel (Anguilla anguilla, L.) elvers on sex differentiation and zootechnical performances. J Appl Ichthyol 13:131–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shimatani Y, Oguri S, Kayaba Y (1994) Impact of stream modification on habitat component and fish in Tagawa River. Suikougaku Ronbunshuu 38:337–344Google Scholar
  71. Sloane RD (1984) Distribution, abundance, growth and food of freshwater eels (Anguilla spp.) in the Douglas River, Tasmania. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 35:325–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Strayer DL, Findlay SEG, Miller D, Malcom HM, Fischer DT, Coote T (2012) Biodiversity in Hudson River shore zones: influence of shoreline type and physical structure. Aquat Sci 74:597–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Takahashi G, Higashi S (1984) Effect of channel alteration on fish habitat. Jpn J Limnol (Rikusuigaku Zasshi) 45:178–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Takahasi Y, Uitto JI (2004) Evolution of river management in Japan: from focus on economic benefits to a comprehensive view. Glob Environ Chang 14:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Taniguchi Y, Inoue M, Kawaguchi Y (2001) Stream fish habitat science and management in Japan: a review. Aquat Ecosyst Health Manag 4:357–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tatsukawa K (2003) Eel resources in East Asia. In: Aida K, Tsukamoto K, Yamauchi K (eds) Eel biology. Springer, Tokyo, pp 293–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tesch FW (1968) Age and growth. In: Ricker WE (ed) Methods for Assessment of fish production in fresh waters. Blackwell scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 93–123Google Scholar
  78. Tesch FW (2003) The eel biology and management of anguillid eels. Blackwell science, LondonGoogle Scholar
  79. Tomie JPN, Cairns DK, Courtenay SC (2013) How American eels Anguilla rostrata construct and respire in burrows. Aquat Biol 19:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tsukamoto K (1990) Recruitment mechanism of the eel, Anguilla japonica, to the Japanese coast. J Fish Biol 36:659–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tsukamoto K (1992) Discovery of the spawning area for Japanese Eel. Nature 356:789–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tsukamoto K (2009) Oceanic migration and spawning of anguillid eels. J Fish Biol 74:1833–1852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tsukamoto K, Arai T (2001) Facultative catadromy of the eel Anguilla japonica between freshwater and seawater habitats. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 220:265–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tsukamoto K, Nakai I, Tesch WV (1998) Do all freshwater eels migrate? Nature 396:635–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tsukamoto K, Aoyama J, Miller MJ (2009) The present status of the Japanese eel: resources and recent research. In: Casselman J, Cairns D (eds) Eels at the edge. Bethesda, Maryland, p 21–35 (Am Fish Soc Symp 58)Google Scholar
  86. Tsukamoto K, Chow S, Otake T, Kurogi H, Mochioka N, Miller MJ, Aoyama J, Kimura S, Watanabe S, Yoshinaga T, Shinoda A, Kuroki M, Oya M, Watanabe T, Hata K, Ijiri S, Kazeto Y, Nomura K, Tanaka H (2011) Oceanic spawning ecology of freshwater eels in the western North Pacific. Nat Commun 2:179PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tzeng WN, Cheng PW, Lin FY (1995) Relative abundance, sex ratio and population structure of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in the Tanshui River system of northern Taiwan. J Fish Biol 46:183–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tzeng WN, Shiao JC, Iizuka Y (2002) Use of otolith Sr:Ca ratios to study the riverine migratory behaviors of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 245:213–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Usuda H, Morita T, Hasegawa M (2012) Impacts of river alteration for flood control on freshwater turtle populations. Landsc Ecol Eng 8:9–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Van Liefferinge C, Dillen A, Ide C, Herrel A, Belpaire C, Mouton A, de Deckere E, Meire P (2012) The role of a freshwater tidal area with controlled reduced tide as feeding habitat for European eel (Anguilla anguilla, L.). J Appl Ichthyol 28:572–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Verreault G, Dumont P, Mailhot Y (2004) Habitat losses and anthropogenic barriers as a cause of population decline for American eel (Anguilla rostrata) in the St. Lawrence watershed, Canada. ICES CGoogle Scholar
  92. Ward JV, Tockner K, Schiemer F (1999) Biodiversity of floodplain river ecosystems: ecotones and connectivity. Regul Rivers Res Manag 15:125–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wasserman R, Pereira-da-Conceicoa L, Strydom N, Weyl O (2012) Diet of Anguilla mossambica (Teleostei, Anguillidae) elvers in the Sundays River, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Afr J Aquat Sci 37:347–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wolter C (2001) Conservation of fish species diversity in navigable waterways. Landsc Urban Plan 53:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yokouchi K, Aoyama J, Oka HP, Tsukamoto K (2008) Variation in the demographic characteristics of yellow-phase Japanese eels in different habitats of the Hamana Lake system, Japan. Ecol Freshw Fish 17:639–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yokouchi K, Fukuda N, Miller MJ, Aoyama J, Daverat F, Tsukamoto K (2012) Influences of early habitat use on the migratory plasticity and demography of Japanese eels in central Japan. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 107:132–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Yoshimura C, Omura T, Furumai H, Tockner K (2005) Present state of rivers and streams in Japan. River Res Appl 21:93–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zenimoto K, Kitagawa T, Miyazaki S, Sasai Y, Sasaki H, Kimura S (2009) The effects of seasonal and interannual variability of oceanic structure in the western Pacific North Equatorial current on larval transport of the Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. J Fish Biol 74:1878–1890PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hikaru Itakura
    • 1
  • Tsubasa Kaino
    • 1
  • Yoichi Miyake
    • 1
  • Takashi Kitagawa
    • 1
  • Shingo Kimura
    • 1
  1. 1.Atmosphere and Ocean Research InstituteUniversity of TokyoKashiwaJapan

Personalised recommendations