Advertisement

Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 98, Issue 5, pp 1365–1371 | Cite as

Reproductive biology of the Geno hot spring tooth-carp (Aphanius ginaonis Holly, 1929) in southern Iran

  • Parviz Zare
  • Mojtaba Naderi
  • Samaneh Asghari
Article

Abstract

This study provides fundamental information on some key aspects of the reproductive traits of Aphanius ginaonis, an Iranian endemic, poorly studied cyprinodontid fish species. Samples were taken monthly, from March 2010 to February 2011, from Geno hot spring (Bandar Abbas, Iran). The smallest sexually mature male and female individuals measured 21.1 and 15.1 mm and massed 0.15 and 0.06 g, respectively. The overall sex ratio (females/males) found to be 1.18. Monthly sex ratios suggested no significant differences, although females demonstrated significantly higher abundances than males at larger length classes. Gonadosomatic index and ovary condition suggested that species reproductive period lasts all year. Oocyte diameter ranged from 0.30 to 2.20 mm, with a mean of 1.15 ± 0.49 mm. Monthly mean oocyte diameter were not significantly different, ranging from 0.99 (in February) to 1.22 mm (in December). Size composition analysis of oocyte diameter showed that females contained mature oocytes (>1.1 mm) throughout year. Absolute fecundity of A. ginaonis ranged from 36 to 832 oocytes per individual (mean: 341 ± 209 oocytes), varying considerably at given length and mass. Relative fecundity to total length fluctuated from 12 to 169 oocytes/mm (mean: 78 ± 41 oocytes/mm) while relative fecundity to total mass varied from 61–526 oocytes/g (mean: 213 ± 106 oocytes/g). A. ginaonis is an asynchronous, iteroparous spawner producing more than one oocyte clutch in a single reproductive season.

Keywords

Aphanius ginaonis Spawning period Oocyte size Reproductive strategy Fecundity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was conducted with the approval of environmental protection office of geno hot spring, Bandar Abbas, Iran. We would like to thank A. Bagheri and S. Okhdad from Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas branch for her valuable help to use of laboratory facilities and Parshan for his help with the sampling. Special thanks to H. H. Larson for editing our manuscript.

References

  1. Alavi-Yeganeh MS, Seyfabadi SJ, Keivany Y, Kazemi P, Wallis GP (2011) Length- weight relationships in some populations and species of Iranian toothcarps. J Appl Ichthyol 27:1401–1403. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0426.2011.01782.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Caddy JF, Mahon R (1995) Reference points for fisheries management. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 347. Rome, FAO.Google Scholar
  3. Cao L, Song B, Zha J, Yang C, Gong X, Li J, Wang W (2009) Age composition, growth, and reproductive biology of yellow catfish (Peltobagrus fulvidraco, Bagridae) in Ce Lake of Hubei Province, Central China. Environ Biol Fish 86:75–88. doi: 10.1007/s10641-008-9342-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coad BW (1980) A re-description of Aphanius ginaonis (Holly, 1929) from southern Iran (Osteichthyes: Cyprinodontiformes). J Nat Hist 14:33–40. doi: 10.1080/00222938000770031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Coad BW (1998) Threatened fishes of the world: Lebias ginaonis (Holly, 1929) (Cyprinodontidae). Environ Biol Fish 51:284. doi: 10.1007/s10641-009-9549-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. El-Haweet AA (1991) Biological studies of some Cichlid species in Lake Borollus. Dissertation, University of AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  7. El-Shazly A (1993) Biological studies on four cichlid fishes (Tilapia nilotica, Tilapia galilae, Tilapia zillii, Tilapia aurea). Dissertation, University of ZagazigGoogle Scholar
  8. Esmaeili HR, Ebrahimi M (2006) Length–weight relationships of some freshwater fishes of Iran. J Appl Ichthyol 22:328–329. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00653.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Esmaeili HR, Shiva H (2006) Reproductive biology of the Persian Tooth-carp, Aphanius persicus (Jenkins, 1910) (Cyprinodontidae), in southern Iran. Zool Middle East 37:39–46. doi: 10.1080/09397140.2006.10638147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fernandez-Delgado C, Hernando JA, Herrera M, Bellido M (1988) Age, growth and reproduction of Aphanius iberus (Cuv. & Val., 1846) in the lower reaches of the Guadalquivir River South-West Spain. Freshw Biol 20:227–234. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1988.tb00446.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Golmoradizadeh E, Kamrani E, Sajjadi MM (2011) Life history traits of Aphanius ginaonis Holly, 1929 (Cyprinodontidae) and potential risks of extinction in the Geno hot spring (Iran) population. J Appl Ichthyol 28(1):1–3. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0426.2011.01868.x Google Scholar
  12. Güçlü SS, Kucuk F (2011) Reproductive biology of Aphanius mento (Heckel in: Russegger, 1843) (Osteichthyes: Cyprinodontidae) in Kirkgoz spring (Antalya-Turkey). Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 11:323–327. doi: 10.4194/trjfas.2011.0217 Google Scholar
  13. Güçlü SS, Kucuk F (2012) Population structure of Killifish, Aphanius anatoliae (Cyprinodontidae) endemic to Anatolia in Lake Eğirdir-Isparta (Turkey). JIFRO 11(4):786–795Google Scholar
  14. Hotosa GN, Avramidoua D, Ondrias I (2000) Reproduction biology of Liza aurata (Risso, 1810), (Pisces Mugilidae) in the lagoon of Klisova (Messolonghi, W. Greece). Fish Res 47:57–67. doi: 10.1016/S0165-7836(99)00128-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hrbek T, Meyer A (2003) Closing of the Tethys Sea and the phylogeny of Eurasian killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes: Cyprinodontidae). J Evol Biol 16(1):17–36. doi: 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2003.00475.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hubbs C, Strawn K (1957) The effects of light and temperature on the fecundity of the greenthroat darter, Etheostoma lepidum. esa. Ecology 38:596–602. doi: 10.2307/1943125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hubbs C, Stevenson MM, Peden AE (1968) Fecundity and egg size in two central Texas darter populations. Southwest Nat 13(30):1–323. doi: 10.2307/3669223 Google Scholar
  18. Hunter JR, Macewicz BJ, Lo NCH, Kimbrell CA (1992) Fecundity, spawning, and maturity of female Dover sole, Microstomus pacificus, with an evaluation of assumptions and precision. Fish Bull 90(1):101–128Google Scholar
  19. Kamal S, Bakhtiyari M, Abdoli A, Eagderi S, Karami M (2009) Life-history variations of killifish (Aphanius sophiae) populations in two environmentally different habitats in central Iran. J Appl Ichthyol 25:474–478. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0426.2009.01242.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Keivany Y, Soofiani NM (2004) Contribution to the biology of Zagros tooth-carp, Aphanius vladykovi (Cyprinodontidae) in central Iran. Environ Biol Fish 71:165–169. doi: 10.1007/s10641-004-0106-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Leonardos I, Sinis A (1998) Reproductive strategy of Aphanius fasciatus Nardo, 1827 (Pisces: Cyprinodontidae) in the Mesolongi and Etolikon lagoons (W. Greece). Fish Res 35:171–181. doi: 10.1016/S0165-7836(98)00082-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li Y, Xie S, Li Z, Gong W, He W (2007) Gonad development of an anadromous fish Coilia ectenes (Engraulidae) in lower reach of Yangtze River, China. Fish Sci 73:1224–1230. doi: 10.1111/j.1444-2906.2007.01459.x Google Scholar
  23. Maitland P (2001) Guide to freshwater fish of Britain and Europe. Hamlyn, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Murua H, Karus G, Saborido-Ray F, Witthames PR (2003) Procedures to estimate fecundity of marine fish species in relation to their reproductive strategy. J Northwest Atl Fish Sci 33:33–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Negassa A, Getahun A (2003) Breeding Season, length-weight relationship and condition factor of introduced fish, Tilapia zillii Gervais 1948 (Pisces: Cichlidae) in Lake Zwai, Ethiopia. SINET Ethiop J Sci 26:115–122Google Scholar
  26. Negassa A, Padanillay CP (2008) Abundance, food habits, and breeding season of exotic Tilapia zillii and native Oreochromis niloticus L. fish species in Lake Zwai, Ethiopia Mj. Int J Sci Technol 02(02):345–360Google Scholar
  27. Pan BS, Yeh WT (1993) Biochemical and morphological changes in grass shrimp (Penaeus monodon) muscle following freezing by air blast and liquid nitrogen methods. J Food Biochem 17:147–160. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.1993.tb00464.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Phillips AE (1994) Studies on the biology of two Tilapia species in Lake Edku. Dissertation, Alexandria UniversityGoogle Scholar
  29. Reichenbacher B, Kamrani E, Esmaeili HR, Teimori A (2009) The endangered cyprinodont Aphanius ginaonis (Holly, 1929) from southern Iran is a valid species: evidence from otolith morphology. Environ Biol Fish 86:507–521. doi: 10.1007/s10641-009-9549-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schenck JR, Whiteside BG (1977) Reproduction, fecundity, sexual dimorphism and sex ratio of Etheostoma fonticola (Osteichthyes: Percidae). Am Midl Nat 98(2):365–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Teimori A (2013) The evolutionary history and taxonomy of Aphanius (Teleostei: Cyprinodontidae) species in Iran and the Persian Gulf region. Dissertation, University of MünchenGoogle Scholar
  32. Wildekamp RH (1993) A world of killies: Atlas of the oviparous cyprinodontiform fishes of the world. Volume 1. The genera Adamas, Adinia, Aphanius, Aphyoplatys and Aphyosemion. Amer. Killifish Assoc., Mishawaka. 311 ppGoogle Scholar
  33. Zhang J, Takita T, Zhang C (2009) Reproductive biology of Ilisha elongata (Teleostei: Pristigasteridae) in Ariake Sound, Japan: implications for estuarine fish conservation in Asia. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 81:105–113. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2008.10.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Winemiller KO, Rose KA (1992) Patterns of life-history diversification in North American fishes: implications for population regulation. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 49:2196–2218. doi: 10.1139/f92-242 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Fisheries and Environmental sciencesGorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural ResourcesGorganIran
  2. 2.Young Researchers and Elite Club, Bandar Abbas BranchIslamic Azad UniversityBandar AbbasIran
  3. 3.Bandar Abbas BranchIslamic Azad UniversityBandar AbbasIran

Personalised recommendations