Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 98, Issue 1, pp 135–143 | Cite as

Broad salinity tolerance in the invasive lionfish Pterois spp. may facilitate estuarine colonization

  • Zachary R. Jud
  • Patrick K. Nichols
  • Craig A. Layman


The ongoing invasion of non-native Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois spp.) represents a significant ecological threat throughout the Western Atlantic and Caribbean. As a generalist species, lionfish have been able to rapidly colonize a wide variety of ecosystems, including coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangroves, the sea floor at depths as great as 300 m, and even brackish estuaries. While lionfish have been encountered in a number of estuarine systems, the spatial distribution of lionfish in estuaries is likely limited by the species’ ability to tolerate low salinities. Here, we experimentally identify minimum salinity tolerance in lionfish by measuring survival salinity minimum—the lowest salinity at which all individuals survive for 48 h. Additionally, we examine whether long-term exposure to low (but sub-lethal) salinities has negative effects on lionfish. Field observations in the Loxahatchee River estuary (Jupiter, FL) showed that lionfish can survive brief exposure to salinities as low as 1 ‰. At one estuarine location, fish survived exposure to salinity fluctuations of ~28 ‰ every 6 h for several days. In laboratory trials, survival salinity minimum for lionfish was 5 ‰; however, some individuals survived at 4 ‰ for up to 94 h before dying. Lionfish that were held at 7 ‰ for 28 days showed no differences in mortality, behavior or growth, when compared to control fish held at 35 ‰ (typical ocean salinity). This broad salinity tolerance may allow lionfish to colonize estuaries throughout their invaded range, and may facilitate dispersal across the Amazon-Orinoco plume. Because of the ecological and economic importance of estuaries, this facet of the lionfish invasion warrants further study.


Estuary Indian River Lagoon Invasive marine fish Lionfish Pterois volitans Salinity tolerance 



This project was made possible by a close partnership with the Loxahatchee River District. Lauren Arrington (King’s Academy, West Palm Beach, FL) conducted preliminary laboratory experiments that helped give rise to our experimental design. We thank Joel Trexler for facilitating our use of Florida International University’s aquarium facilities and Diana Churchill for assistance during the laboratory portion of the study. Research protocols were approved by Florida International University’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC-13-030-AM01), and a Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Special Activities License (SAL-13-1487-SR).

Supplementary material

10641_2014_242_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (28 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 28 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zachary R. Jud
    • 1
  • Patrick K. Nichols
    • 2
  • Craig A. Layman
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Marine Sciences Program, Department of Biological SciencesFlorida International UniversityNorth MiamiUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of MiamiMiamiUSA
  3. 3.Department of Applied EcologyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA

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