Somatic growth is often used as a metric of habitat quality, but such an approach has limitations because growth results from complex interactions between abiotic and biotic factors. In this study, we derived estimates of weekly growth (based on otolith growth increments) across several months for four populations of threatened Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from the Salmon River Basin, Idaho, USA. Although mean stream temperature varied by 2–5 °C across populations, growth across the season did not vary significantly by population. To investigate this further, we applied a bioenergetics model that produced estimates of consumption rates. We then examined how growth and consumption rates varied according to rearing stream and day in the season. Using generalized least squares models, somatic growth (g⋅day−1) was best explained by stream and date, yet a model with only date had moderate support, and thus indicated limited support for stream effects. Specific consumption rate (g⋅g−1⋅day−1 and J⋅g−1⋅day−1) was best explained using a model that included main effects of stream and date. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that higher temperatures confer higher metabolic costs that require greater consumption to produce similar growth rates in cooler streams. This highlights that similarity in growth rate among streams may mask changes in individual behavior and/or energetic acquisition associated with differences in temperatures among streams. Results of this study represent the first steps towards identifying factors that underlie important population level and habitat quality differences.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Use of trade names does not imply endorsement by the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA.
Achord S, Sandford B, Hockersmith E, Hodge J, McIntyre K, Paasch N, Crozier L, Williams J (2006) Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon juveniles, 2004–2005 Annual Report, Project No. 199102800, 105 pages, (BPA, Report DOE/BP-00021961–1)
Achord S, Levin PS, Zabel RW (2003) Density-dependent mortality in Pacific salmon: the ghost of impacts past? Ecol Lett 6:335–342
Akaike H (1973) Information theory as an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. In: Petrov BN, Csaki F (eds) Second international symposium on information theory. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest, pp 267–281
Basilone G, Guisande C, Patti B, Mazzola S, Cuttitta A, Bonanno A, Kallianiotis A (2004) Linking habitat conditions and growth in the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus). Fish Res 68:9–19
Baumann H, Pepin P, Davidson FJM, Mowbray F, Schnack D, Dower JF (2003) Reconstruction of environmental histories to investigate patterns of larval radiated shanny (Ulvaria subbifurcata) growth and selective survival in a large bay of Newfoundland. ICES J Mar Sci 60:243–258
Beauchamp DA, Cross AD, Armstrong JL, Myers KW, Moss JH, Boldt JL, Haldorson LJ (2007) Bioenergetic responses by Pacific Salmon to climate and ecosystem variation. North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission 4:257–269
Bjornsson BT, Hemre G-I, Bjornevik M, Hansen T (2000) Photoperiod regulation of plasma growth hormone levels during induced smoltification of underyearling Atlantic Salmon. Gen Comp Endocr 119:17–25
Boisclair D, Leggett WC (1989) The importance of activity in bioenergetics models applied to actively foraging fishes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46:1859–1867
Boisclair D, Sirois P (1993) Testing assumptions of fish bioenergetics models by direct estimation of growth, consumption, and activity rates. Trans Am Fish Soc 122:784–796. doi:10.1577/1548-8659(1993)122<0784:TAOFBM>2.3.CO;2
Brett JR, Clarke WC, Shelbourn JE (1982) Experiments on thermal requirements for growth and food conversion efficiency of juvenile chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci. No. 1127
Burnham KP, Anderson DR (2002) Model selection and multimodel inference: a practical information-theoretic approach. Springer-Verlag, New York
Campana S, Neilson J (1985) Microstructure of fish otoliths. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 42:1014–1033
Cromwell K (2009) Spatial variation in juvenile Chinook habitat quality: is food limiting in a wilderness watershed? Masters thesis. University of Idaho
Crozier LG, Zabel RW, Hockersmith EE, Achord S (2010) Interacting effects of density and temperature on body size in multiple populations of Chinook salmon. J Anim Ecol 79:342–349. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2009.01641.x
DeVries DR, Frie RV (1996) Determination of age and growth. In: Murphy BR, Willis DW (eds) Fisheries techniques, 2nd edn. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, pp 353–383
Duffy EJ (2009) Factors during early marine life that affect smolt-to-adult survival of ocean-type Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington, pp 156
Duffy EJ, Beauchamp DA (2008) Seasonal patterns of predation on juvenile Pacific salmon by anadromous cutthroat trout in Puget Sound. Trans Am Fish Soc 137:165–181. doi:10.1577/t07-049.1
Duffy J, Beauchamp DA (2011) Rapid growth in the early marine period improves the marine survival of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in Puget Sound, Washington. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 68:232–240
Elliot JM (1989) The critical-period concept for juvenile survival and its relevance for population regulation in young sea trout, Salmo trutta. J Fish Biol 35:91–98
Elliott JM (1994) Quantitative ecology and the brown trout. Oxford University Press, Oxford
Gauldie RW (1991) The morphology and periodic structures of the otolith of the Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and temperature-dependent variation in otolith microscopic growth increment width. Acta Zool 72:159–179. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.1991.tb00943.x
Graeb BDS, Dettmers JM, Wahl DH, Caceres CE (2004) Fish size and prey availability affect growth, survival, prey selection, and foraging behavior of larval yellow perch. Trans Am Fish Soc 133:504–514
Hanson PC, Johnson TB, Schindler DE, Kitchell JF (1997) Bioenergetics model 3.0 for Windows. University of Wisconsin, Sea Grant Institute, Technical Report WISCU-T-97–001, Madison
Hamilton SL, Regetz J, Warner RR (2008) Postsettlement survival linked to larval life in a marine fish. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:1561–1566
Hughes NF, Hayes JW, Shearer KA, Young RG (2003) Testing a model of drift-feeding using three-dimensional videography of wild brown trout, Salmo trutta, in a New Zealand river. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 60:1462–1476. doi:10.1139/f03-126
Kingsolver JG, Huey RB (2008) Size, temperature, and fitness: three rules. Evol Ecol Res 10:251–268
Kitchell JF, Stewart DJ, Weininger D (1977) Applications of bioenergetics model to yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 34:1922–1935
Koehler ME, Fresh KL, Beauchamp DA, Cordell JR, Simenstad CA, Seiler DE (2006) Diet and bioenergetics of lake-rearing juvenile Chinook salmon in Lake Washington. Trans Am Fish Soc 135:1580–1591
Letcher BH, Gries G, Juanes F (2002) Survival of stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon: effects of life history variation, season, and age. Trans Am Fish Soc 131:838–854
Le Pape O, Holley J, Guérault D, Désaunay Y (2003) Quality of coastal and estuarine essential fish habitats: estimations based on the size of juvenile common sole (Solea solea L.). Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 58:793–803
Limm M, Marchetti M (2009) Juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) growth in off-channel and main-channel habitats on the Sacramento River, CA using otolith increment widths. Environ Biology Fishes 85:141–151
Lundqvist H, Clarke WC, Johansson H (1988) The influence of precocious sexual maturation on survival to adulthood of river stocked Baltic salmon, Salmo salar, smolts. Holarctic Ecol 11:60–69
Macneale KH, Sanderson BL, Courbois JYP, Kiffney PM (2010) Effects of non-native brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) on threatened juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in an Idaho stream. Ecol Freshw Fish 19:139–152. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0633.2009.00398.x
Madenjian CP, O’Connor DV, Chernyak SM, Rediske RR, O’Keefe JP (2004) Evaluation of a chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bioenergetics model. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61:627–635
McCormick SD, Bjornsson BT, Sheridan M, Eilertson C, Carey JB, Odea M (1995) Increased daylength stimulates plasma growth-hormone and gill NA+, K+ atpase in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). J Comp Physiol B-Biochem Syst Environ Physiol 165:245–254. doi:10.1007/bf00367308
Meng L, Gray C, Taplin B, Kupcha E (2000) Using winter flounder growth rates to assess habitat quality in Rhode Island’s coastal lagoons. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 201:287–299. doi:10.3354/meps201287
Murry BA, Connerton MJ, O’Gorman R, Stewart DJ, Ringler NH (2009) Lakewide estimates of alewife biomass and Chinook salmon abundance and consumption in Lake Ontario, 1989-2005: implications for prey fish sustainability. Trans Am Fish Soc 139:223–240. doi:10.1577/t08-216.1
Necaise AD, Ross SW, Miller JM (2005) Estuarine habitat evaluation measured by growth of juvenile summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus in a North Carolina estuary. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 285:157–168
Neilson JD, Geen GH (1982) Otoliths of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): daily growth increments and factors influencing their production. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 39:1340–1347
Ney JJ (1993) Bioenergetics modeling today: growing pains on the cutting edge. Trans Am Fish Soc 122:736–748. doi:10.1577/1548-8659(1993)122<0736:bmtgpo>2.3.co;2
Pinheiro JC, Bates DM (2000) Mixed-effects models in s and s-plus. Springer-Verlag, New York
Post JR (1990) Metabolic allometry of larval and juvenile yellow perch (Perca flavescens): in situ estimates and bioenergetic. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 47:554–560
Quinn TP (2005) The behavior and ecology of Pacific salmon and trout. American Fisheries Society and University of Washington Press, Seattle, 378pp
Sanderson BL, Coe HJ, Tran CD, Macneale KH, Harstad DL, Goodwin AB (2009) Nutrient limitation of periphyton in Idaho streams: results from nutrient diffusing substrate experiments. J N Am Benthol Soc 28:832–845. doi:10.1899/09-072.1
Sauter ST, Connolly PJ (2010) Growth, condition factor, and bioenergetics modeling link warmer stream temperatures below a small dam to reduced performance of juvenile steelhead. Northwest Sci 84:369–377. doi:10.3955/046.084.0406
Scheuerell MD, Zabel RW, Sandford BP (2009) Relating juvenile migration timing and survival to adulthood in two species of threatened Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). J Appl Ecol 46:983–990
Searcy SP, Eggleston DB, Hare JA (2007) Is growth a reliable indicator of habitat quality and essential fish habitat for a juvenile estuarine fish? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 64:681–691. doi:10.1139/f07-038
Sogard SM (1997) Size-selective mortality in the juvenile stage of teleost fishes: a review. Bull Mar Sci 60:1129–1157
Sponaugle S, Grorud-Colvert K (2006) Environmental variability, early life-history traits, and survival of new coral reef fish recruits. Integr Comp Biol 46:623–633
Stewart D, Ibarra M (1991) Predation and production by salmonine fishes in Lake Michigan, 1978-88. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48:909–922
Van Winkle W, Rose KA, Chambers RC (1993) Individual-based approach to fish population dynamics: an overview. Trans Am Fish Soc 122:397–403. doi:10.1577/1548-8659(1993)122<0397:ibatfp>2.3.co;2
Zabel RW, Haught K, Chittaro P (2010) Variability in fish size/otolith radius relationships among populations of Chinook salmon. Environ Biol Fish 89:267–278. doi:10.1007/s10641-010-9678-x
Zabel RW (2002) Using ‘travel time’ data to characterize the behavior of migrating animals. Am Nat 159:372–387. doi:10.1086/338993
Zabel RW, Achord S (2004) Relating size of juveniles to survival within and among populations of Chinook salmon. Ecology 85:795–806
Zabel RW, Williams JG (2002) Selective mortality in Chinook salmon: what is the role of human disturbance? Ecol Appl 12:173–183
We thank C. Vizza, A. Goodwin, C. Tran, H. Coe, and S. Achord, for collecting fish samples. We thank L. Crozier for providing the map of Salmon River basin populations, C. Harvey for assistance with bioenergetic components. M. Carey and B. Burke provided valuable comments that greatly improved an earlier draft. Collection permits were obtained from ESA (Sect 10 permit # 1406) and USFS (biological opinion #1-4-04-F-289).
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.
(DOC 461 kb)
About this article
Cite this article
Chittaro, P.M., Zabel, R.W., Haught, K. et al. Spatial and temporal patterns of growth and consumption by juvenile spring/summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha . Environ Biol Fish 97, 1397–1409 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10641-014-0230-2
- Generalized least squares models
- Somatic growth and consumption rate
- Proportion of maximum consumption