Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 97, Issue 4, pp 425–434 | Cite as

The status of Lake Lanao endemic cyprinids (Puntius species) and their conservation

  • Gladys B. Ismail
  • David B. Sampson
  • David L. G. Noakes


The endemic cyprinid species flock of Lake Lanao, Philippines is a classic example of explosive evolution. Based on historical surveys, most of the 18 endemic cyprinid species in Lake Lanao are now believed to be extinct. We compared results of landing and market surveys conducted in 2008 to information from historical surveys. Field sampling and fishermen interviews provided additional information on the status of the endemic and other fish species in Lake Lanao. Puntius lindog and Puntius tumba were the only two endemic species recorded in 2008, accounting for 0.01 % and 0.04 % respectively of the total weight harvested. Our discovery that at least two endemic cyprinids remain in Lake Lanao is surprising and significant as the lake is increasingly imperiled by human disturbances, exploitation and introduced species. Protecting and conserving the remaining endemic species are important management priorities.


Puntius tumba Puntius lindog Species flock Philippines 



We are grateful for the support provided by the Fulbright Program for Gladys Ismail’s graduate studies at Oregon State University, including the research described in this paper. Professor Pedro Escudero provided inspiration, advice and help identifying the endemic species. The College of Fisheries Mindanao State University and Tom Ballatore who provided the map. Asliah Imam and Noraida Ibrahim assisted during the 2008 survey. A very special thanks to the Maranao people for their support and cooperation during the 2008 survey. The Fisheries and Wildlife Department of Oregon State University also provided support for this project. We offer special thanks and recognition to Gene Helfman for his endless enthusiasm and encouragement and his dedication to conservation of the world’s threatened fishes.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gladys B. Ismail
    • 1
  • David B. Sampson
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • David L. G. Noakes
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Fisheries and WildlifeOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA
  2. 2.Coastal Oregon Marine Experiment StationOregon State University, Hatfield Marine Science CenterNewportUSA
  3. 3.Department of Fisheries and WildlifeOregon State University, Hatfield Marine Science CenterNewportUSA
  4. 4.Department of Fisheries and Wildlife and Oregon Hatchery Research CenterOregon State UniversityCorvallisUSA

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