Environmental Biology of Fishes

, Volume 96, Issue 2–3, pp 145–164 | Cite as

Growth, survival, and tag retention of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and its application to survival estimates

  • P. T. Sandstrom
  • A. J. Ammann
  • C. Michel
  • G. Singer
  • E. D. Chapman
  • S. Lindley
  • R. B. MacFarlane
  • A. P. Klimley
Article

Abstract

Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, are known to expel acoustic tags which can negatively bias population survival estimates. Tag burden may also affect the development and behavior of smolts, thereby impacting the results of population and behavioral studies. We monitored the growth, condition, and tag expulsion rate of steelhead trout in similar-sized individuals and used these data to adjust survival rates from an acoustic telemetry study conducted in the Sacramento River. Eighty fish were surgically implanted with tags—40 with cylindrical tags of 9 mm diameter and 21 or 24 mm length (V9, Vemco Ltd) and 40 with a 7 mm diameter and 20 mm length tag (V7, Vemco Ltd)—to examine the impact of tag size on peritoneal retention and survival rate of juvenile steelhead trout. A total of 20 % (16/80) of all tags were expelled by smolts during the 143-day study. Ten V9 tags were expelled between day 18 and day 66. Six V7 tags were expelled between day 21 and day 143. A statistical difference was found for retention rate by surgeon even though the surgeons were of equal experience and received the same training. There were no significant differences in the tag retention rate in relation to the tag/body weight ratio, or in growth (weight or fork length) among the control, V7 or V9 treatment groups over the duration of the study. All individuals survived throughout the experiment. Two methods were used to adjust the survival estimates of an acoustic telemetry data set from the Sacramento River based on the tag retention study. First, a simple individual censorship approach in Program MARK was utilized and next ATLAS, a software program designed to compensate for bias in survival estimates caused by tag failures was used. The results of the adjusted survival estimates were not significantly different from the unadjusted rates suggesting that it may be more important to focus on improving surgical techniques to reduce tag expulsion rather than adjusting survival estimates dependent on the study. The surgical techniques utilized in this study did not have significant impacts on the growth rates of either of the tag treatment groups compared to the control. However, tag retention was an issue regardless of the size and weight of the implanted tag and the size of the steelhead.

Keywords

Oncorhynchus mykiss Tag retention Surgical procedure Telemetry Survival 

References

  1. Anglea SM, Geist DR, Brown RS, Deter KA, McDonald RD (2004) Effects of acoustic transmitters on swimming performance and predator avoidance of juvenile Chinook salmon. N Am J Fish Manag 24(1):162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnas BML, Coves D, Dutto G, Laffargue P, Lagardere F (2003) Tagging juvenile seabass and sole with telemetry transmitters: medium-term effects on growth. ICES J Mar Sci 60(6):1328–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker PF, Speed TP, Ligon FK (1995) Estimating the influence of temperature on the survival of chinook salmon smolts (Oncorhynchus-tshawytcha) migrating through the Sacramento-San-Joaquin River delta of California. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52(4):855–863Google Scholar
  4. Brenden TO, Jones ML, Ebner MP (2010) Sensitivity of tag-recovery mortality estimates to inaccuracies in tag shedding, handling mortality, and tag reporting. J Great Lakes Res 36:100–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bridger CJ, Booth RK (2003) The effects of biotelemetry transmitter presence and attachment. Procedures on Fish Physiology and Behavior, Rev Fish Sci 11(1):13–34Google Scholar
  6. Butler GL, Mackay B, Rowland SJ, Pease BC (2009) Retention of intra-peritoneal transmitters and post-operative recovery of four Austrailian native fish species. Mar Freshwater Res 60:361–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. California Fish Tracking Consortium (2009) http://californiafishtracking.ucdavis.edu/region.shtml
  8. Chisholm IM, Hubert WA (1985) Expulsion of dummy transmitters by rainbow trout. Trans Am Fish Soc 114:766–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chittenden CM, Sura S, Butterworth KG, Cubitt KF, Manel-La NP, Balfry S, Okland F, McKinley RS (2008) Riverine, estuarine and marine migratory behaviour and physiology of wild and hatchery-reared coho salmon Oncorhynchus kitsutvh (Walbum) smolts descending the Campbell River, BC, Can. J Fish Biol 72(3):614–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chittenden CM, Butterworth KG, Cubitt KF, Jacobs MC, Ladouceur A, Welch DW, McKinley RS (2009) Maximum tag to body size ratios for an endangered coho salmon (O. kisutch) stock based on physiology and performance. En- viron Biol Fish 84:129–140Google Scholar
  11. Chittenden CM, Jensen JLA, Ewart D, Anderson S, Balfry S, Downey E, Alexandra E, Saksida S, Smith B, Vincent S, Welch D, McKinley RS (2010) Recent salmon declines: a result of lost feeding opportunities due to bad timing? PLoS One 5(8):e12423. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012423 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clarke LR, Flesher MW, Warren SM, Carmichael RW (2011) Survival and straying of hatchery steelhead following forced or volitional release. N Am J Fish Manag 31(1):116–123Google Scholar
  13. Conn PB, Kendall WL, Samuel MD (2004) A general model for analysis of mark-resight, mark-recapture, and band-recovery data. Biometrics 60(4):900–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cormack RM (1964) Estimates of survival from sighting of marked animals. Biometrika 51(3–4):429Google Scholar
  15. Cupauto M, O’Connor CM, Hasler CT, Hanson KC, Cooke SJ (2009) Long-term effects of surgically implanted telemetry tags on the nutritional physiology and condition of wild freshwater fish. Dis Aquat Organ 84(1):35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Daniel AJ, Brenden JH, Nicholas L, David BO (2009) Acoustic and radio-transmitter retention in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) in New Zealand. Mar Freshwater Res 60:328–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Del Real SC, Workman M, Merz J (2011) Migration characteristics of hatchery and natural-origin Oncorhynchus mykiss from the lower Mokelumne River, CA. Environ Biol Fish. doi: 10.1007/s10641-011-9967-z
  18. Deters KA, Brown RS, Carter KM, Boyd JW, Eppard MB, Seaburg AG (2010) Performance assessment of suture type, water temperature, and surgeon skill in juvenile chinook salmon surgically implanted with acoustic transmitters. Trans Am Fish Soc 139:888–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ebner BC (2009) Preface. Tagging for telemetry of freshwater fauna. Mar Freshwater Res 60:281–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fabrizio MC, Pessutti JP (2007) Long-term effects and recovery from surgical implantation of dummy transmitters in two marine fishes. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 351:243–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Frost DA, McComas RL (2010) The effects of a surgically implanted microacoustic tag on growth and survival in subyearling fall Chinook. Trans Am Fish Soc 139:1192–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gabbiani G, Hirschel BJ, Ryan GB, Statkov PR, Manjo G (1972) Granulation tissue as a contractile organ: a study of structure and function. J Exp Med 135:719–735PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gibbons JW, Andrews KM (2004) PIT tagging: Simple technology at its best. Bioscience 54(5):447–454Google Scholar
  24. Greenstreet SPR, Morgan RIG (1989) The effect of ultrasonic tags on growth-rates of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar l parr of varying size just prior to smolting. J Fish Biol 35(2):301–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jepsen N, Koed A, Thorstad EB, Baras E (2002) Surgical implantation of telemetry transmitters in fish: how much have we learned? Hydrobiologia 483:239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jensen LF, Hansen MM, Thomassen ST (2008) Visible implant elastomer (VIE) marking of brown trout, Salmo trutta, alevins. Fisheries Manag Ecol 15(1):81–83Google Scholar
  27. Jolly GM (1965) Explicit estimates from capture-recapture data with both death and immigration-stochastic model. Biometrika 52: 225Google Scholar
  28. Kaemingk MA, Weber MJ, McKenna PR, Brown ML (2011) Effect of passive integrated transponder tag implantation site on tag retention, growth, and survival of two sizes of juvenile bluegills and yellow perch. N Am J Fish Manag 31:726–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Knight BC, Lasee BA (1996) Effects of implanted transmitters on adult bluegills at two temperatures. Trans Am Fish Soc 125:440–449Google Scholar
  30. LaCroix GL, McCurdy P (1996) Migratory behaviour of post-smolt Atlantic salmon during initial stages of seaward migration. J Fish Biol 49:1086–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. LaCroix GL, Knox D, McCurdy P (2004) Effects of implanted dummy acoustic transmitters on juvenile Atlantic salmon. Trans Am Fish Soc 133(1):211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lady J, Westhagen P, Skalski JR (2010) Active tag life adjusted survival 1.2.1. University of Washington: School of Aquatic Fisheries SciencesGoogle Scholar
  33. Lucas MC (1989) Effects of implanted dummy transmitters on mortality, growth, and tissue reaction in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. J Fish Bio 35:577–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McMichael GA, Eppard MB, Carlson TJ, Carter JA, Ebberts BD, Brown RS, Weiland M, Ploskey GR, Harnish RA, Deng ZD (2010) The juvenile salmon acoustic telemetry system: a new tool. Fisheries 35(1):9–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Melnychuk MC, Welch DW, Walters CJ, Christensen V (2007) Riverine and early ocean migration and mortality patterns of juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Cheakamus River, British Columbia. Hydrobiologia 582:55–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Michel CM, Ammann AJ, Chapman ED, Sandstrom PT, Fish HE, Thomas MJ, Singer GP, Lindley ST, Klimley AP, MacFarlane RB (2012) The effects of environmental factors on the migratory movement patterns of Sacramento River yearling late-fall run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Environ Biol Fish. doi: 10.1007/s10641-012-9990-8
  37. Moore A, Russell IC, Potter ECE (1990) The effects of intraperitoneally implanted dummy acoustic transmitters on the behavior and physiology of juvenile Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L. J Fish Biol 37:713–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moore A, Potter ECE, Milner NJ, Bamber S (1995) The migratory behavior of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in the estuary of the River Conwy, North Wales. Can J Aquat Sci 52:1923–1935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nelson JT, Anderson DR, Burnham KP (1980) The effect of band loss on estimates of annual survival. J Field Orni 51 (1):30–38Google Scholar
  40. Null RE, Niemela KS, Hamelberg SF (2012) Post-spawn migrations of hatchery-origin Oncorhynchus mykiss kelts in the Central Valley of California. Environ Biol FishGoogle Scholar
  41. Perry RW, Skalski JR, Brandes PL, Sandstrom PT, Klimley AP, Ammann A, MacFarlane RB (2010) Estimating survival and migration route probabilities of juvenile Chinook salmon in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. N Am J Fish Manag 30:142–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rechisky EL, Welch DW (2009) Surgical implantation of acoustic tags: influence of tag loss and tag induced mortality on free-ranging and hatchery-held spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawtytscha) smolts. Tagging, Telemetry, and Marking Measures for Monitoring Fish Populations Chapter 4:69–94Google Scholar
  43. Seber GAF (1965) A note on multiple-recapture census. Biometrika 52:249Google Scholar
  44. Seitz AC, Norcross BL, Payne JC, Kagley AN, Meloy B, Jacob L, Gregg JL, Hershberger PK (2010) Feasability of surgically implanting acoustic tags into pacific herring. Trans Am Fish Soc 139(5):1288–1291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Singer GP, Hearn AR, Chapman ED, Peterson ML, LaCivita PE, Brostoff WN, Bremner A, Klimley AP (2012) Interannual variation of reach specific migratory success for Sacramento River hatchery yearling late-fall run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ Biol Fish. doi 10.1007/s10641-012-0037-y
  46. Spicer AV, Moring JR, Trial JG (1995) Downstream migratory behavior of hatchery-reared, radio-tagged atlantic salmon (salmo-salar) smolts the Penobscot River, Maine, USA. Fish Res 23(3–4):255–266Google Scholar
  47. Stakenas S, Copp GH, Scott DM (2009) Tagging effects on three non-native fish species in England (Lepomis gibbosus, Pseudorasbora parva, Sander lucioperca) and of native Salmo trutta. Ecol Fresh Fish 18:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Steel AE, Sandstrom PT, Brandes PL, Klimley AP (2012) Migration of juvenile Chinook salmon at the Delta Cross Channel, and the role of water velocity and individual movement patterns. Environ Biol Fish doi: 10.1007/s10641-012-9992-6
  49. Summerfelt RC, Mosier D (1984) Transintestinal expulsion of surgically implanted dummy transmitters by channel catfish. Trans Am Fish Soc 113(6):760–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Summerfelt RC, Smith LS (1990) Anesthesia, surgery, and related techniques. In: Schreck CB, Moyle PB (eds) Methods for Fish Biology. American Fish Society, Bethesda, pp 213–272Google Scholar
  51. Teo SL, Sandstrom PT, Chapman ED, Null RE, Brown K, Klimley AP, Block BA (2011) Archival and acoustic tags reveal the post-spawning migrations, diving behavior, and thermal habitat of hatchery-origin Sacramento River steelhead kelts (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ Biol Fish. doi 10.1007/s10641-011-9938-4
  52. Townsend RL, Skalski JR, Dillingham P, Steig TW (2006) Correcting bias in survival estimation resulting from tag failure in acoustic and radiotelemetry studies. J Agric Biol Environ St 11(2):183–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wagner GN, Cooke SJ (2005) Methodological approaches and opinions of researchers involved in the surgical implantation of telemetry transmitters in fish. J Aquat Anim Health 17:160–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wagner GN, Stevens ED (2000) Effects of different surgical techniques: Suture material and location of incision site on the behavior of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Mar Fresh Behav Physiol 33(2):103–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Welch DW, Ward BR, Batten SD (2004) Early ocean survival and marine movements of hatchery and wild steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) determined by an acoustic array: Queen Charlotte Strait, British Columbia. Deep-Sea Res Pt II 51(6–9):897–909Google Scholar
  56. Welch DW, Batten SW, Ward BR (2007) Growth, survival, and tag retention of steelhead trout (O. mykiss) surgically implanted with dummy acoustic tags. Hydrobiologia 582:289–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wetherall JA (1982) Analysis of double-tagging experiments. Fish Bull 80(4):687–701Google Scholar
  58. White GC, Burnham KP (1999) Program MARK: Survival estimation from populations of marked animals. Bird Study 46 (Suppl.) 120–139 Version 5.1Google Scholar
  59. Xiao Y (1996) A general model for estimating tag specific shedding rates and tag interactions from exact or pooled times at liberty for a double tagging experiment. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 53:1852–1861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Younk JA, Herwig BR, Pittman BJ (2010) Short- and long term evaluation of passive integrated transponder and visible implant elastomer tag performance in muskellunge. N Am J Fish Manag 30:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zale AV, Brooke C, Fraser WC (2007) Effects of surgically implanted transmitter weights on growth and swimming stamina of small adult westslope cutthroat trout. Trans Am Fish Soc 134(3):653–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhou S (2002) Uncertainties in estimating fishing mortality in unmarked salmonin mark-selective fisheries using double-index-tagging methods. N Am J Fish Manag 22:480–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. T. Sandstrom
    • 1
  • A. J. Ammann
    • 2
  • C. Michel
    • 2
  • G. Singer
    • 1
  • E. D. Chapman
    • 1
  • S. Lindley
    • 2
  • R. B. MacFarlane
    • 2
  • A. P. Klimley
    • 1
  1. 1.Wildlife, Fish, and Conservation BiologyUniversity of California DavisDavisUSA
  2. 2.National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationSouthwest Fisheries Science CenterSanta CruzUSA

Personalised recommendations