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Fish Protein Transition in a Coastal Developing Country

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Abstract

In low-income food-deficit coastal countries, fish forms a critical source of animal protein. Yet, capture fisheries, which provide fish protein to the local populations, are typically overcapitalized and exhibit classical signs of biological overfishing, threatening the livelihoods of communities. With the high and increasing fishing pressure, the rate of stock depletion may continue to intensify, thereby tilting households’ preferences towards consumption of other types of animal protein depending on whether (or not) they have strong preferences for those types of protein. This, however, may have implications for the environment as the different types of protein have different environmental footprints. By employing a variant of the Suits Index (1977) and an Almost Ideal Demand Systems (AIDS) model, we found strong evidence that wealthier households in Ghana spend a lesser proportion of their protein budget on fish than their poorer counterparts. In addition, the other types of animal protein, except chicken, serves as substitutes for fish.

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Notes

  1. Both the vertical and horizontal axes of the quadrilateral are measured from 0 to 100. Hence, the area of the one-half of the square (below the line of proportionality) is 50 × 100 = 5000.

  2. The Wald test indicated that this is a good instrument (P < 0.01).

  3. See https://ourworldindata.org/carbon-footprint-food-methane for the data on the carbon footprints for beef, goat, and chicken. The carbon footprint for the capture fish is calculated based on average gasoline usage by canoes in Ghana.

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Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida) through its Environment for Development (EfD) programme; and One Ocean Hub (OOH) Project funded by UKRI. The authors are indebted to the two anonymous reviewers, the guest editor, and the participants at the GIMPA Research Intensification Seminar Series (GRISS) for their thoughtful comments.

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Correspondence to Wisdom Akpalu.

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Appendix

Appendix

1.1 Appendix 1

See Table 5.

Table 5 Parameter estimates for LA-AIDS for fish and other animal

1.2 Appendix 2

See Table 6.

Table 6 Wald test for homogeneity and symmetry restrictions and strict exogeniety in the LA/AIDS model

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Akpalu, W., Okyere, M.A. Fish Protein Transition in a Coastal Developing Country. Environ Resource Econ 84, 825–843 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10640-022-00669-y

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